Tag Archives: Sexual Dysfunctions/Physiological

Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance in either the male or the female.

The ‘heat’ goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya.

Reprod Health. 2017 Dec 2;14(1):164. doi: 10.1186/s12978-017-0433-z.FREE

The ‘heat’ goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya.

Esho T, Kimani S, Nyamongo I, Kimani V, Muniu S, Kigondu C, Ndavi P, Guyo J

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been implicated in sexual complications among women, although there is paucity of research evidence on sexual experiences among married women who have undergone this cultural practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the sexual experiences among married women in Mauche Ward, Nakuru County. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used. Quantitative data were obtained from 318 married women selected through multistage sampling. The women were categorized into: cut before marriage, cut after marriage and the uncut. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information while psychometric data were obtained using a female sexual functioning index (FSFI) tool. The resulting quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS® Version 22. Qualitative data were obtained from five FGDs and two case narratives. The data were organized into themes, analyzed and interpreted. Ethical approval for the study was granted by Kenyatta National Hospital-University of Nairobi Ethics and Research Committee. RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 30.59 ± 7.36 years. The majority (74.2%) had primary education and 76.1% were farmers. Age (p = 0.008), number of  children (p = 0.035) and education (p = 0.038) were found to be associated with sexual functioning. The cut women reported lower sexual functioning compared to the uncut. ANOVA results show the reported overall sexual functioning to be significantly (p = 0.019) different across the three groups. Women cut after marriage (mean = 22.81 ± 4.87) scored significantly lower (p = 0.056) than the uncut (mean = 25.35 ± 3.56). However, in comparison to the cut before marriage there was no significant difference (mean = 23.99 ± 6.63). Among the sexual functioning domains, lubrication (p = 0.008), orgasm (p = 0.019) and satisfaction (p = 0.042) were significantly different across the three groups. However, desire, arousal and pain were not statistically different. CONCLUSION: Generally, cut women had negative sexual experiences and specifically adverse changes in desire, arousal and satisfaction were experienced among cut after marriage. FGM/C mitigating strategies need to routinely provide sexual complications management to safeguard women’s sexual right to pleasure subsequently improving their general well-being.

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Effects of female genital mutilation/cutting on the sexual function of Sudanese women: a cross-sectional study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jul;217(1):62.e1-62.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.02.044. Epub 2017 Mar 3. Effects of female genital mutilation/cutting on the sexual function of Sudanese women: a cross-sectional study.

Rouzi AA, Berg RC, Sahly N, Alkafy S, Alzaban F, Abduljabbar H.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice that involves several types of removal or other injury to the external female genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although much international research has focused on the health consequences of the practice, little is known about sexual functioning among women with various types of FGM/C. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of FGM/C on the sexual functioning of Sudanese women. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Doctor Erfan and Bagedo Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Eligible women completed a survey and a clinical examination, which documented and verified women’s type of FGM/C. The main outcome measure was female sexual function, as assessed by the Arabic Female Sexual Function Index. RESULTS: A total of 107 eligible women completed the survey and the gynecological examination, which revealed that 39% of the women had FGM/C Type I, 25% had Type II, and 36% had Type III. Reliability of self-report of the type of FGM/C was low, with underreporting of the extent of the procedure. The results showed that 92.5% of the women scored lower than the Arabic Female Sexual Function Index cut-off point for sexual dysfunction. The multivariable regression analyses showed that sexual dysfunction was significantly greater with more extensive type of FGM/C, across all sexual function domains (desire, arousal, lubrication,
orgasm, satisfaction, and pain) and overall. CONCLUSION: The study documents that a substantial proportion of women subjected to FGM/C experience sexual dysfunction. It shows that the anatomical extent of FGM/C is related to the severity of sexual dysfunction.

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Sexual Anatomy and Function in Women With and Without Genital Mutilation: A Cross-Sectional Study

The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2016;13 (2):226–237

Sexual Anatomy and Function in Women With and Without Genital Mutilation: A Cross-Sectional Study

Abdulcadir J, Botsikas D, Bolmont M Bilancioni A, Djema DA, Demicheli FB, Yaron M, Petignat P

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Female genital mutilation (FGM), the partial or total removal of the external genitalia for non-medical reasons, can affect female sexuality. However, only few studies are available, and these have significant methodologic limitations. Aim: To understand the impact of FGM on the anatomy of the clitoris and bulbs using magnetic resonance imaging and on sexuality using psychometric instruments and to study whether differences in anatomy after FGM correlate with differences in sexual function, desire, and body image. Methods: A cross-sectional study on sexual function and sexual anatomy was performed in women with and without FGM. Fifteen women with FGM involving cutting of the clitoris and 15 uncut women as a control group matched by age and parity were prospectively recruited. Participants underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging with vaginal opacification by ultrasound gel and completed validated questionnaires on desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), body image (Questionnaire d’Image Corporelle [Body Image Satisfaction Scale]), and sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index). Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcomes were clitoral and bulbar measurements on magnetic resonance images. Secondary outcomes were sexual function, desire, and body image scores. Results: Women with FGM did not have significantly decreased clitoral glans width and body length but did have significantly smaller volume of the clitoris plus bulbs. They scored significantly lower on sexual function and desire than women without FGM. They did not score lower on Female Sexual Function Index sub-scores for orgasm, desire, and satisfaction and on the Questionnaire d’Image Corporelle but did report significantly more dyspareunia. A larger total volume of clitoris and bulbs did not correlate with higher Female Sexual Function Index and Sexual Desire Inventory scores in women with FGM compared with uncut women who had larger total volume that correlated with higher scores. Conclusion: Women with FGM have sexual erectile tissues for sexual arousal, orgasm, and pleasure. Women with sexual dysfunction should be appropriately counseled and treated.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions.

Sex Reprod Healthc. 2016 Dec;10:3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2016.07.002. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions.

Biglu MH, Farnam A, Abotalebi P, Biglu S, Ghavami M

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers. They usually use cutting tools like a blade or straight-razor. Although FGM/C is well described in the African continent and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce.

OBJECTIVES: The major objective of this current study was to investigate the effects of FGM/C on the female sexual function of married women compared to the non-circumcised women in the Kurdistan province of Iran.

METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in a sample of 280 married women (140 circumcised-women and 140 non-circumcised-women) who referred to the healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. Participants were requested to complete the Persian-translated version of the Female Sexual Function Index.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total score of the FSFI and its individual domains.

RESULTS: Of the circumcised women, 51.4% reported circumcision procedures before the age of 3 years. Religion motivation (53.6%) was mentioned as the most important factor for the family leading to FGM/C. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers. Non-circumcised women had significantly higher Persian-FSFI total score (25.3 ± 4.34) compared to the circumcised women (17.9 ± 5.39).

CONCLUSION: Sexual function in women with FGM/C is adversely altered. In Kurdistan province women, FGM/C is associated with reduction of scores of Persian-FSFI on all domain scores. Education in general and informing the people that FGM/C is not a religious Hadith certainly would have a great impact on the suffering of the women from FGM/C as well as the level of “desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain in the sexual function of women”.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Will It Continue?

J Sex Med. 2014 Aug 14. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12655. [Epub ahead of print]

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Will It Continue?

Mohammed GF, Hassan MM, Eyada MM.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a prevalent, deeply rooted traditional practice in Egypt. AIMS: Specification of the motives behind the continuation of FGM/C in Egyptian community and evaluation of the sexual function in women with FGM/C.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study, involved 2,106 sexually active female participants with FGM/C. Full history-taking and general examination to evaluate the type of FGM/C were conducted. Sexual function was assessed by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Enumerate and specify the motivational factors and its percent among the participants. The correlation between FGM/C and FSFI domain scores was done with Pearson’s correlation.

RESULTS: Tradition, cleanliness, and virginity were the most common motives empowering the continuation of FGM/C (100%), followed by men’s wish, esthetic factors, marriage, and religion factors (45.2-100%). Type I FGM/C was the most common, followed by type II. There was only negative correlation between the type II FGM/C and sexual satisfaction. No statistically significant difference between type I and non-FGM/C was found.

CONCLUSIONS: FGM/C remains high. A variety of socio-cultural myths, religious misbelievers, and hygienic and esthetic concerns were behind the FGM/C. Overall, a large proportion of the participants supported the continuation of FGM/C in spite of adverse effect and sexual dysfunction associated with FGM/C.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Unprohibited crimes.

CMAJ. 2007 Nov 20;177(11):1345. FREE

Unprohibited crimes.

Jassam J.

EXTRACT

A few years ago, when I was working in one of the Middle East countries …

It was a summer day, I was sitting in my office … waiting for the coming patient … somebody knocked the door. … Come in, I said.

Hello, doc … He embarrassingly sat in front of me … moving his head to the ceiling, then to the floor for a minute … He wanted to say something.

Okay, Akram, how can I help? Obviously, you have some embarrassing thing … Just say it … No worries … I said that, trying to break the ice.

I don’t know, doc, what to say. But I really need your help. … He forced himself …

And said: My wife is cold….

This article can be accessed in this LINK