Tag Archives: Social Perception

Determinants of support for female genital cutting among ever-married women in Egypt

Global Public Health, 2008:3(4);383-398.

Determinants of support for female genital cutting among ever-married women in Egypt

Suzuki C, Meeker D

ABSTRACT

This study examines the effect of exposure to communication messages on support for female genital cutting (FGC) in Egypt. Data from the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are analysed using logistic regression (n=19,106; ever-married women aged 15–49). The analysis reveals that high levels of exposure to FGC-related media messages are essential in reducing support for FGC. Women exposed to two or more FGC media messages are 1.6 times more likely than unexposed women to support discontinuing FGC. Moreover, women’s belief that men want the practice discontinued, and their belief that FGC can cause fatal complications, are both positively associated with women’s support for discontinuing FGC. By contrast, women’s belief that FGC is an important part of religion, and their belief that FGC prevents adultery, are negatively associated with women’s support for discontinuing FGC. Almost identical factors affect women’s intention to circumcise their daughters. High exposure to FGC-related messages, and women’s belief that men want the practice discontinued, are negatively associated with the outcome. Women’s belief that FGC is an important part of religion, and their belief that FGC prevents adultery, are positively associated with it. Women’s belief that a husband prefers a circumcised wife is not associated with women’s intention to circumcise their daughters after controlling for all other variables in the model. Given that high level of exposure to FGC-related messages is key in reducing support for FGC, communication campaigns should be continued and intensified. Campaigns should also aim to change men’s perception and support for the practice.

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Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?

Reprod Health Matters. 2014 May;22(43):169-77. doi: 10.1016/S0968-8080(14)43759-5.

Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?

Lunde IB, Sagbakken M.

ABSTRACT

According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings.

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ATTITUDES OF CIRCUMCISED WOMEN TOWARDS DISCONTINUATION OF GENITAL CUTTING OF THEIR DAUGHTERS IN KENYA.

J Biosoc Sci. 2014 Jul 3:1-16. [Epub ahead of print]

ATTITUDES OF CIRCUMCISED WOMEN TOWARDS DISCONTINUATION OF GENITAL CUTTING OF THEIR DAUGHTERS IN KENYA.

Patra S, Singh RK.

ABSTRACT

Female genital cutting (FGC) is widely practised in Kenya. However, its prevalence has declined over the last two decades (38.0% in 1998 KDHS, 32.2% in 2003 KDHS and 27.1% in 2008-09 KDHS), implying changes in behaviours and attitudes of Kenyans towards FGC. This study provides an overview of changing attitudes of women towards FGC in Kenya. An extensive literature review was undertaken and 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data were used to focus on the present scenario. Analyses were based on a national sample of 2284 circumcised women. About 68% of these women wanted to discontinue FGC, and attitudes towards discontinuation were found to vary with women’s background characteristics. Surprisingly, 92.5% of circumcised women of the North-Eastern province still wished to continue FGC, and for Muslims the percentage was 72.2%. About 36% of circumcised women responded that their daughters were already circumcised. Only 13% of circumcised mothers intended their daughters to be circumcised in the future. The study shows that the attitude of Kenyan women, irrespective of their circumcision status, has been changing gradually towards the discontinuation of circumcision of their daughters.

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Attitudes toward Female Circumcision among Men and Women in Two Districts in Somalia: Is It Time to Rethink Our Eradication Strategy in Somalia?

Obstet Gynecol Int. 2013;2013:312734. doi: 10.1155/2013/312734. Epub 2013 Apr 18. FREE

Attitudes toward Female Circumcision among Men and Women in Two Districts in Somalia: Is It Time to Rethink Our Eradication Strategy in Somalia?

Gele AA, Bø BP, Sundby J.

Department of Social Science, Oslo University College, 0167 Oslo, Norway ; Section for International Health, Department of General Practice and Community Medicine, University of Oslo, 0167 Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT

Somalia has the highest global prevalence (98%) of female circumcision (FC), and, despite a long history of abandonment efforts, it is not clear as to whether or not these programmes have changed people’s positive attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Hargeisa and Galkayo districts to the practice of FC. Methods. A purposive sampling of 24 Somalis, including activists and practitioners, men and women, was conducted in Somalia. Unstructured interviews were employed to explore the participants’ knowledge of FC, their attitudes toward the continuation/discontinuation of the practice, and the type they want to continue or not to continue. Result. The findings of this qualitative study indicate that there is a strong resistance towards the abandonment of the practice in Somalia. The support for the continuation of Sunna circumcision is widespread, while there is a quite large rejection of Pharaonic circumcision. Conclusion. Therefore, since the “zero tolerance policy” has failed to change people’s support for the continuation of the practice in Somalia, programmes that promote the pinch of the clitoral skin and verbal alteration of status, with the goal of leading to total abandonment of FC, should be considered for the Somali context.

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Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2012 Dec;16(4):132-9.FREE

Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.

Johnson OE, Okon RD.

Department of Community Health, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. drjohnsonoe@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the awareness and practice of FGC in a rural community in southern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Information obtained was analysed using SPSS version 17. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. Majority, 215 (98.6%) were aware of the practice of FGC. Type 2 FGC was the commonest type reported by 71.2% of respondents. Prevalence of FGC was 92.7%. A total of 69.8% were circumcised at 6-12 years. Health complications experienced included excruciating pains, (36.6%), severe bleeding, (15.8%), and painful urination, (26.7%). Up to 53.5% were circumcised by traditional birth attendants. The belief that FGM should be discontinued increased with educational level. The practice of FGC was high in this community. Increased female education, community involvement and legislation are needed to reduce this practice.

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Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt.

J Inj Violence Res. 2010 Jan;2(1):41-5. doi: 10.5249/jivr.v2i1.33.FREE

Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt.

Dalal K, Lawoko S, Jansson B.

Linköpings Universitet, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Centre for Medical Technology Assessment and Division of Social Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden. koustuv.dalal@liu.se

BACKGROUND: To examine women’s attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women’s attitudes towards FGM.

RESULTS: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favor its discontinuation.

CONCLUSIONS: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favoring FGM practice – through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs – may play an important role in modifying women’s attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy. ‎

This article can be accessed for free in this LINK