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Uncertain future for initiative against FGM in the UK

Lancet. 2016 Jul 23;388(10042):326. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31147-3.

Uncertain future for initiative against FGM in the UK

Devi S

SUMMARY

Activists say that a community-based programme to tackle female genital mutilation in the UK needs support from central or local government to continue. Sharmila Devi reports.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

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Archives Blog Original research

Determinants of support for female genital cutting among ever-married women in Egypt

Global Public Health, 2008:3(4);383-398.

Determinants of support for female genital cutting among ever-married women in Egypt

Suzuki C, Meeker D

ABSTRACT

This study examines the effect of exposure to communication messages on support for female genital cutting (FGC) in Egypt. Data from the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are analysed using logistic regression (n=19,106; ever-married women aged 15–49). The analysis reveals that high levels of exposure to FGC-related media messages are essential in reducing support for FGC. Women exposed to two or more FGC media messages are 1.6 times more likely than unexposed women to support discontinuing FGC. Moreover, women’s belief that men want the practice discontinued, and their belief that FGC can cause fatal complications, are both positively associated with women’s support for discontinuing FGC. By contrast, women’s belief that FGC is an important part of religion, and their belief that FGC prevents adultery, are negatively associated with women’s support for discontinuing FGC. Almost identical factors affect women’s intention to circumcise their daughters. High exposure to FGC-related messages, and women’s belief that men want the practice discontinued, are negatively associated with the outcome. Women’s belief that FGC is an important part of religion, and their belief that FGC prevents adultery, are positively associated with it. Women’s belief that a husband prefers a circumcised wife is not associated with women’s intention to circumcise their daughters after controlling for all other variables in the model. Given that high level of exposure to FGC-related messages is key in reducing support for FGC, communication campaigns should be continued and intensified. Campaigns should also aim to change men’s perception and support for the practice.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

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Actors Blog Governments Guideline

Protocolo para la prevención y actuación ante la mutilación genital femenina en Aragón [Text in Spanish]

aragonGovernment of Aragon, Instituto Aragonés de la Mujer, Medicos del Mundo.

Protocolo para la prevención y actuación ante la mutilación genital femenina en Aragón [Text in Spanish]

This guideline has been prepared with the aim to support healthcare, social and education workers to prevent and respond to the needs of girls and women who undergo FGM in Aragon (Spain).

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Archives Blog Original research

Seven Things to Know about Female Genital Surgeries in Africa

Hastings Center Report.

Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012. DOI: 10.1002/hast.81. Dec 2012 42(6)19–27

Seven Things to Know about Female Genital Surgeries in Africa

By The Public Policy Advisory Network on Female Genital Surgeries in Africa

ABSTRACT

Starting in the early 1980s, media coverage of customary African genital surgeries for females has been problematic and overly reliant on sources from within a global activist and advocacy movement opposed to the practice, variously described as female genital mutilation, female genital cutting, or female circumcision. Here, we use the more neutral expression female genital surgery. In their passion to end the practice, anti-mutilation advocacy organizations often make claims about female genital surgeries in Africa that are inaccurate or overgeneralized or that don’t apply to most cases.

The aim of this article—which we offer as a public policy advisory statement from a group of concerned research scholars, physicians, and policy experts—is not to take a collective stance on the practice of genital surgeries for either females or males. Our main aim is to express our concern about the media coverage of female genital surgeries in Africa, to call for greater accuracy in cultural representations of little-known others, and to strive for evenhandedness and high standards of reason and evidence in any future public policy debates. In effect, the statement is an invitation to actually have that debate, with all sides of the story fairly represented.

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Archives Blog Original research

Female genital mutilation and its prevention: a challenge for paediatricians.

Eur J Pediatr. 2009 Jan;168(1):27-33. Epub 2008 Apr 25.

Female genital mutilation and its prevention: a challenge for paediatricians.

Jaeger F, Caflisch M, Hohlfeld P.

Service de Pédiatrie, Hôpital de Pourtalès, Rue de la Maladière 45, 2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. f.jaeger@gmx.ch

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined as an injury of the external female genitalia for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. FGM is mainly performed in sub-Saharan and Eastern Africa. The western health care systems are confronted with migrants from this cultural background. The aim is to offer information on how to approach this subject. The degree of FGM can vary from excision of the prepuce and clitoris to infibulation. Infections, urinary retention, pain, lesions of neighbouring organs, bleeding, psychological trauma and even death are possible acute complications. The different long-term complications include the risk of reduced fertility and difficulties during labour, which are key arguments against FGM in the migrant community. Paediatricians often have questions on how to approach the subject. With an open, neutral approach and basic knowledge, discussions with parents are constructive. Talking about the newborn, delivery or traditions may be a good starting point. Once they feel accepted, they speak surprisingly openly. FGM is performed out of love for their daughters. We have to be aware of their arguments and fears, but we should also stress the parents’ responsibility in taking a health risk for their daughters. It is important to know the family’s opinion on FGM. Some may need support, especially against community pressure. As FGM is often performed on newborns or at 4-9 years of age, paediatricians should have an active role in the prevention of FGM, especially as they have repeated close contact with those concerned and medical consequences are the main arguments against FGM.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

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Archives Blog Original research

Female genital cutting in southern urban and peri-urban Nigeria: self-reported validity, social determinants and secular decline

Trop Med Int Health. 2002 Jan; 7(1): 91-100

Female genital cutting in southern urban and peri-urban Nigeria: self-reported validity, social determinants and secular decline

Snow RC, Slanger TE, Okonofua FE, Oronsaye F, Wacke RJ

ABSTRACT

Despite growing public resistance to the practice of female genital cutting (FGC), documentation of its prevalence, social correlates or trends in practice are extremely limited, and most available data are based on self-reporting. In three antenatal and three family planning clinics in South-west Nigeria we studied the prevalence, social determinants, and validity of self-reporting for FGC among 1709 women. Women were interviewed on social and demographic history, and whether or not they had undergone FGC. Interviews were followed by clinical examination to affirm the occurrence and extent of circumcision. In total, 45.9% had undergone some form of cutting. Based on WHO classifications by type, 32.6% had Type I cuts, 11.5% Type II, and 1.9% Type III or IV. Self-reported FGC status was valid in 79% of women; 14% were unsure of their status, and 7% reported their status incorrectly. Women are more likely to be unsure of their status if they were not cut, or come from social groups with a lower prevalence of cutting. Ethnicity was the most significant social predictor of FGC, followed by age, religious affiliation and education. Prevalence of FGC was highest among the Bini and Urhobo, among those with the least education, and particularly high among adherents to Pentecostal churches; this was independent of related social factors. There is evidence of a steady and steep secular decline in the prevalence of FGC in this region over the past 25 years, with age-specific prevalence rates of 75.4% among women aged 45–49 years, 48.6% among 30–34-year olds, and 14.5% among girls aged 15–19. Despite wide disparities in FGC prevalence across ethnic, religious and educational groups, the secular decline is evident among all social subgroups.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.