Tag Archives: Socioeconomic factors

Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

Trends and protective factors of female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso: 1999 to 2010

Int J Equity Health. 2015 May 8;14(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s12939-015-0171-1. FREE

Trends and protective factors of female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso: 1999 to 2010.

Chikhungu LC, Madise NJ

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is common in several African countries and some parts of Asia. This practice is not only a violation of human rights, but also puts women at risk of adverse health outcomes. This paper analysed the trends in the prevalence of FGM in Burkina Faso and investigated factors that are associated with this practice following the enactment of an FGM law in 1996.

METHODS: The study used the Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data sets from women aged 15 to 49 years undertaken in 1999, 2003 and 2010. Chi square tests were carried out to investigate whether there has been a change in the levels of FGM in Burkina Faso between 1999 and 2010 and multilevel logistic regression analysis were employed to identify factors that were significantly associated with undergoing FGM.

RESULTS: The levels of FGM in Burkina Faso declined significantly from 83.6% in 1999 to 76.1% in 2010. The percentage of women circumcised between the ages of 0 to 5 years increased from 34.2% in 1999 to 69% in 2010. Significantly more women in 2010 than in 1999 were of the opinion that FGM should stop (90.6% versus 75.1%, respectively). In 2010, the odds of getting circumcised were lowest amongst women that were born in the period 1990 to 1995 (immediately before the FGM law was enacted) compared to women born in the period 1960-1965 [OR 0.16 (0.13,0.20)]. There was significant variation of FGM across communities. Other factors that were significantly associated with being circumcised were education level, religion, ethnicity, urban residence and age at marriage.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of FGM has declined in Burkina Faso, the levels are still high. In order to tackle the practice of FGM in Burkina Faso, the government of Burkina Faso and its development partners need to encourage girls’ participation in education and target its sensitization campaigns against FGM towards Muslim women, women residing in rural areas and women of Mossi ethnic background.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

A cross sectional study on factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years in Axum town, north Ethiopia, 2013.

Reprod Health. 2014 Jun 21;11:46. doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-11-46.FREE

A cross sectional study on factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years in Axum town, north Ethiopia, 2013.

Gebrekirstos K, Abebe M, Fantahun A.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Every social grouping in the world has its own cultural practices and beliefs which guide its members on how they should live or behave. Harmful traditional practices that affect children are Female genital mutilation, Milk teeth extraction, Food taboo, Uvula cutting, keeping babies out of exposure to sun, and Feeding fresh butter to new born babies. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum town, North Ethiopia.

METHODS: Community based cross sectional study was conducted in 752 participants who were selected using multi stage sampling; Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum town. After proportional allocation of sample size, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered Tigrigna version questionnaire, it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was calculated and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data.

RESULTS: Out of the total sample size 50.7% children were females, the mean age of children was 26.28 months and majority of mothers had no formal education. About 87.8% mothers had performed at least one traditional practice to their children; uvula cutting was practiced on 86.9% children followed by milk teeth extraction 12.5% and eye borrows incision 2.4% children. Fear of swelling, pus and rapture of the uvula was the main reason to perform uvula cutting.

CONCLUSION: The factors associated with harmful traditional practices were educational status, occupation, religion of mothers and harmful traditional practices performed on the mothers.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

 

 

Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria–issues and challenges.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2007 Apr;11(1):113-24. FREE

Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria–issues and challenges.

Okonta PI.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State. Patrickokonta@Yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive h
ealth. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region. Adolescents in the NDR engage in unhealthy sexual behaviour characterized by early age at sexual initiation, unsafe sex and multiple sexual partners. The local socioeconomic condition exerts extra pressure on the adolescent with negative reproductive health consequences. There is urgent need to develop a time bound strategic framework and plan to redress this situation. This will require the participation of all stake holders.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

Changing gendered norms about women and girls at the level of household and community: a review of the evidence.

Glob Public Health. 2008;3 Suppl 1:42-57. doi: 10.1080/17441690801892307.

Changing gendered norms about women and girls at the level of household and community: a review of the evidence.

Keleher H, Franklin L.

Department of Health Science, Monash University, Peninsula Campus, Australia. Helen.Keleher@med.monash.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Gendered norms are embedded in social structures, operating to restrict the rights, opportunities, and capabilities, of women and girls, causing significant burdens, discrimination, subordination, and exploitation. This review, developed for the Women and Gender Equity Knowledge Network of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, sought to identify the best available research evidence about programmatic interventions, at the level of household and community, that have been effective for changing gender norms to increase the status of women. The focus was on developing countries. A wide range of single and multiple databases were searched, utilizing database specific keywords such as: women and girls; men and boys; household and community; intervention; and gender norms. Key themes were identified: education of women and girls; economic empowerment of women; violence against women, including female genital mutilation/cutting; and men and boys. Types of interventions, levels of action, populations of interest, and key outcomes from evaluations are identified. Evaluations are limited, with little evidence or measurement of changes in gender equity and women’s empowerment. A key finding is, that targeting women and girls is a sound investment, but outcomes are dependent on integrated approaches and the protective umbrella of policy and legislative actions.

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Spatial distribution of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Nov;81(5):784-92. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0129.FREE

Spatial distribution of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

Kandala NB, Nwakeze N, Kandala SN.

University of Warwick, Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Coventry, United Kingdom. n-b.kandala@warwick.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

The harmful effects of female genital mutilation (FGM) on women are recognized worldwide. Although it is practiced by persons of all socioeconomic backgrounds, there are differences within countries and between communities. The aim of this study was to use the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to determine the spatial distribution of the prevalence of FGM and associated risk factors. Data were available for 7,620 women; 1,673 (22.0%) interviewed had had FGM and 2,168 women had living children, of whom 485 (22.4%) daughters had undergone FGM. Unmarried women were more likely to report a lower prevalence of FGM. Modernization (education and high socioeconomic status) had minimal impact on the likelihood of FGM, but education plays an important role in the mother’s decision not to circumcise her daughter. It follows from these findings that community factors have a large effect on FGM, with individual factors having little effect on the distribution of FGM.

This article can be accessed for free in this LINK

Social context of HIV infection in Uganda.

Health Transit Rev. 1995;5 Suppl:1-26.LME

Social context of HIV infection in Uganda.

Adeokun LA, Twa-Twa J, Ssekiboobo A, Nalwadda R.

Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Some of the important policy and research implications of accumulating HIV/AIDS data are being ignored because of the attraction of social science research focused on the “multiple sexual mechanism’ of infection and transmission. Attention is drawn to the other policy and research issues relating to information on the timing of infection through a reanalysis of existing data on cumulative AIDS cases. The most urgent need is to supplement the mainstream research on risk groups with studies of the timing and circumstances of entry into sexual activity in the pre-teen years.

PIP:

Some of the important policy and research implications of HIV/AIDS data are being ignored because of the focus of social science research upon the multiple sexual mechanism of infection and transmission. Attention is drawn to the other policy and research issues relating to information on the timing of infection through a re-analysis of existing data on cumulative AIDS cases. However, the most urgent need is to supplement the mainstream research on risk groups with studies of the timing and circumstances of entry into sexual activity during the pre-teen years. The authors comment upon the social science response to the epidemic. This paper was written to help broaden the scope of discussion of the socioeconomic context of the rapid reproduction of infections and to focus upon the role of pre-teen girl-child sexuality in the dynamics of the epidemic.

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The effects of female genital mutilation on the onset of sexual activity and marriage in Guinea.

Arch Sex Behav. 2009 Apr;38(2):178-85. Epub 2007 Oct 18.

The effects of female genital mutilation on the onset of sexual activity and marriage in Guinea.

Van Rossem R, Gage AJ. Vakgroep Sociologie, Universiteit Gent, Korte Meer 3-5, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. ronan.vanrossem@ugent.be

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is almost universal in Guinea and practiced by all ethnic and religious groups and social classes, although the prevalence of the various types of FGM varies by socioeconomic group. A common explanation for FGM practices is that they contribute to the social control over female sexuality and enhance the marriageability of women. These claims were tested using the 1999 Guinea Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (N = 6753). Event history techniques were used to examine the effect of type of FGM on the age at first sex and the age at first marriage and logistic regression for the effect of FGM on premarital sex. The results showed that the type of FGM had a significant zero-order effect on the age at first marriage and the prevalence of premarital sex, but not on the age at first sex. However, these effects became non-significant once controls for age, religion, ethnicity, education, residence, and wealth were added to the model. Variations in sexual behavior, therefore, were unrelated to type of FGM, but reflected differences in the social characteristics of the participants.

This article can be viewed online in this LINK

Male and female viewpoints on female circumcision in Ekpeye, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2002 Dec;6(3):44-52.

Male and female viewpoints on female circumcision in Ekpeye, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Briggs LA.

Department of Human Kinetics, Health and Safety Education, Rivers State College of Education, Port Harcourt.

ABSTRACT

One hundred and ninety five male and female volunteers across the social strata were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using frequency tables. The study revealed that 74.7% of female respondents were circumcised. They believe that the practice would help prevent sexual promiscuity, curb sexual desires and that it is a custom they cannot do without. Most of the men would not marry an uncircumcised female, while a substantial number of the respondents would like to circumcise their daughters. Community effort to eradicate the practice is very minimal. Based on the findings, it is suggested that communities where female genital mutilation (FGM) is practiced as a social norm should be involved in eradication campaigns with support from national and international organisations.

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Female genital mutilation and domestic violence among Egyptian women.

J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):593-8.

Female genital mutilation and domestic violence among Egyptian women.

Refaat A, Dandash KF, el Defrawi MH, Eyada M.

Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between female circumcision and domestic violence. Results showed that women who suffered from domestic violence and women who experienced genital circumcision shared many low socioeconomic and educational characteristics. Circumcised women were more likely to support continuation of female circumcision, to circumcise their daughters, and to accept the right of husbands to beat their wives.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Female circumcision among Egyptian women.

Womens Health. 1995 Winter;1(4):309-28.

Female circumcision among Egyptian women.

Ericksen KP.

Department of Psychology, University of California at Davis 95616, USA. kpericksen@ucdavis.edu

Although a remarkable degree of consensus has been reached among international agencies, policymakers, and women’s health advocates that the practice of female circumcision should be eliminated, such consensus is not necessarily shared by those who perform the operation or the families responsible for having girls excised. The surgical procedure is nested in a complex set of beliefs about identity, moral behavior, and the working of the female body. This article describes the dominant themes produced in 85 extensive interviews with mother and operators representing the broad spectrum of Egyptian society. The interviews detailed the operation itself, women’s emotional response to the operation, and the rationales put forth in support of the practice. Although institutional efforts to eliminate the practice will meet with resistance, significant demographic shifts already taking place are producing changes in family systems and the opportunity structure that coincide with the abandonment of excision in key sectors of the urban population.

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