Tag Archives: Stress Disorders/Post-Traumatic

A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.

Female Genital Mutilation in a Young Refugee: A Case Report and Review

Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma. 2010, 3(3):234-242.

Female genital mutilation in a young refugee: a case report and review

Suardi E, Mishkin A & Henderson SW


Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a widespread practice affecting up to 140 million girls and women worldwide (World Health Organization, 2008a). A substantial advocacy literature reports long-term psychological consequences of FGM, but there is little in the psychiatric literature to document this (Behrendt & Moritz, 2005). Within the broader psychiatric literature on refugee mental health, there are debates about the general validity of psychiatric diagnoses in refugee communities, including somatic disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (Summerfield, 2008). We present the case of a young woman with a history of FGM, who was repeatedly hospitalized for gastrointestinal complaints of unclear etiology and discuss how her case illustrates the diagnostic and cultural complexity of the psychosocial consequences of FGM and political asylum-seeking.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder after ritual female genital surgery among bedouin in Israel: myth or reality?

Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;10(6):453-6.FREE

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder after ritual female genital surgery among bedouin in Israel: myth or reality?

Applebaum J, Cohen H, Matar M, Abu Rabia Y, Kaplan Z.

Ministry of Health, Mental Health Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. juliaa@bgu.ac.il


OBJECTIVE: Ritual female genital surgery (RFGS), or female circumcision, is common among certain ethnic groups in Asia and Africa and describes a range of practices involving complete or partial removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Several studies in African populations, in which more severe forms of RFGS are performed, reported an increased prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric syndromes among circumcised women than among uncircumcised controls. Among the Bedouin population in southern Israel, RFGS has become a symbolic operation without major mutilation. However, in a study performed in 1999, Bedouin women after RFGS reported difficulties in mother-daughter relationships and trust. This pilot study assessed the mental health of Bedouin women from southern Israel after RFGS compared to age-matched controls without RFGS.

METHOD: The psychological impact of RFGS was assessed in 19 circumcised Bedouin women compared to 18 age-matched controls. The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale, Symptom Checklist, Impact of Event Scale, and a demographics and background questionnaire were used to assess traumatization and psychiatric illnesses. The study was conducted from March to July 2007.

RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevailing procedure of RFGS among the Bedouin population of southern Israel had no apparent effect on mental health.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Memory Problems After Female Genital Mutilation

Am J Psychiatry 2005;162:1000-1002.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Memory Problems After Female Genital Mutilation

Alice Behrendt, Dipl.-Psych.; Steffen Moritz, Ph.D.


OBJECTIVE: This pilot study investigated the mental health status of women after genital mutilation. Although experts have assumed that circumcised women are more prone to developing psychiatric illnesses than the general population, there has been little research to confirm this claim. It was predicted that female genital mutilation is associated with a high rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
METHOD:The psychological impact of female genital mutilation was assessed in 23 circumcised Senegalese women in Dakar. Twenty-four uncircumcised Senegalese women served as comparison subjects. A neuropsychiatric interview and further questionnaires were used to assess traumatization and psychiatric illnesses.
RESULTS: The circumcised women showed a significantly higher prevalence of PTSD (30.4%) and other psychiatric syndromes (47.9%) than the uncircumcised women. PTSD was accompanied by memory problems.
CONCLUSIONS: Within the circumcised group, a mental health problem exists that may furnish the first evidence of the severe psychological consequences of female genital mutilation.

This article can be accessed online in this LINK.