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Female Genital Mutilation: What Health Educators Should Know

Journal of Health Education. 1999, 30(4):222-228

Female genital mutilation: what health educators should know

Ausherman JA, Welshimer KJ & Black JM

ABSTRACT

This article provides an overview of the issues surrounding the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM is a general term used to describe various forms of genital cutting that are performed on girls and women. There is a definitive need for health education professionals to gain awareness and develop an understanding of this practice. Increasingly, health educators will be called on to teach others about this practice. To be effective, health educators need to develop an understanding of the terminology, the procedure, the extent of the incidence and prevalence of the practice, worldwide prevention efforts, and the various roles that professional health educators can play. This information can be used as a basic guide for the development of curricula, lesson plans, or educational materials for use in schools, communities, work sites, and health care settings.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

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Medical complications of female genital mutilation

Journal of American College Health. 2001, 49(6):275-280.

Medical complications of female genital mutilation

Epstein D, Graham P, & Rimsza M

ABSTRACT

More than 130 million women are subjected to genital mutilation. Despite increasing efforts to reduce the practice, there are many obstacles to eliminating this 2,000-year-old practice, which is based on strong cultural traditions. As college health clinicians provide care to more international students from countries where female genital mutilation is performed, increased awareness and knowledge of the procedure will enable clinicians to understand and manage its complications. We report a case of obstructive uropathy resulting in hydronephrosis secondary to female genital mutilation and review the medical literature regarding this and other complications of genital mutilation “surgery.”

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Female genital mutilation in the Sudan: survey of the attitude of Khartoum university students towards this practice.

Sex Transm Infect. 2003 Jun;79(3):220-3.

Female genital mutilation in the Sudan: survey of the attitude of Khartoum university students towards this practice.

Herieka E, Dhar J.

Bournemouth GU Clinic, Bournemouth, UK. elbushra.herieka@rbch.tr.swest.nhs.uk

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision is the removal of variable amounts of tissue from the female external genitalia. It is practised all over the world on very young girls. This study was conducted in Sudan where FGM is a criminal offence and not a religious dictate. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of this practice among Khartoum university students and compared the differences between male and female student responses.

METHODS: An anonymised detailed questionnaire was distributed among the university students. In addition to the participant’s age, marital status, course studying, details regarding their attitude, knowledge of the practice of FGM, and their own experiences were collected.

RESULTS: Of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 414 (82.8%) were returned from 192 (46%) females and 222 (54%) males. 109 (56.8%) of the female respondents were themselves circumcised.18.8% of the male students and 9.4% of the female students thought FGM was recommended by their religion. Only 90 (46.9%) female students compared with 133 (59.9%) male students thought FGM was illegal. Though 16 (8.3%) female respondents thought FGM would increase their chances of marriage, the majority, 166 (74.8%), of the male students would prefer a non-circumcised female.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that 109 (56.8%) female university students who responded were circumcised. Confusing religious messages and ambiguous laws seem to be responsible for the continuation of this practice. The study highlights the partnership that needs to be established between religious leaders and educationalists to end this medieval practice.

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What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?

East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12 Suppl 2:S78-92.

What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?

Mostafa SR, El Zeiny NA, Tayel SE, Moubarak EI.

Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

We explored the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of 330 5th year medical students in Alexandria University towards female genital mutilation (FGM). The students’ basic knowledge about the practice of FGM was unsatisfactory. Students were unaware of the prevalence of FGM in Egypt and the practices and procedures of FGM. They were also poorly informed about the complications of FGM, and the ethical and legal aspects of FGM in the country. As a result, 52.0% of the students supported the continuation of the practice and 73.2% were in favour of its “medicalization” as a strategy for reducing the risks of FGM. Most students (86.9%) thought that the issue of FGM should be incorporated into the undergraduate medical curriculum.

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