Tag Archives: Sweden

Factors associated with the support of pricking (female genital cutting type IV) among Somali immigrants – a cross-sectional study in Sweden

Reprod Health. 2017 Aug 8;14(1):92. doi: 10.1186/s12978-017-0351-0.FREE

Factors associated with the support of pricking (female genital cutting type IV) among Somali immigrants – a cross-sectional study in Sweden

Wahlberg A, Johnsdotter S, Ekholm Selling K, Källestål C, Essén B

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pricking, classified as female genital cutting (FGC) type IV by the World Health Organization, is an under-researched area gaining momentum among diaspora communities. Our aim was to explore factors associated with being supportive of pricking among Somalis in Sweden. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, attitudes and knowledge regarding FGC, and measures of socioeconomic status, acculturation, and social capital, were assessed by a 49-item questionnaire in four municipalities in Sweden. Data were collected in 2015 from 648 Somali men and women, ≥ 18 years old, of which 113 supported the continuation of pricking. Logistic regression was used for the
analysis. RESULTS: Those more likely to support the continuation of pricking were older, originally from rural areas, and newly arrived in Sweden. Further, those who reported that they thought pricking was: acceptable, according to their religion (aOR: 10.59, 95% CI: 5.44-20.62); not a violation of children’s rights (aOR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.46-5.61); and did not cause long-term health complications (aOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 2.25-13.52) had higher odds of supporting pricking. Religion was strongly associated with the support of pricking among both genders. However, for men, children’s rights and the definition of pricking as FGC or not were important aspects in how they viewed pricking, while, for women, health complications and respectability were important. CONCLUSIONS: Values known to be associated with FGC in general are also related to pricking. Hence, there seems to be a change in what types of FGC are supported rather than in their perceived values.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Experiences from pregnancy and childbirth related to female genital mutilation among Eritrean immigrant women in Sweden.

Midwifery. 2008 Jun;24(2):214-25. Epub 2007 Feb 21.

Experiences from pregnancy and childbirth related to female genital mutilation among Eritrean immigrant women in Sweden.

Lundberg PC, Gerezgiher A.

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Pranee.Lundberga@pubcare.uu.se

OBJECTIVE: to explore Eritrean immigrant women’s experiences of female genital mutilation (FGM) during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.

DESIGN: qualitative study using an ethnographic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews.

SETTING: interviews in the Eritrean women’s homes located in and around Uppsala, Sweden.

PARTICIPANTS: 15 voluntary Eritrean immigrant women.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Semi-structured interview and open-ended questions were used. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and then analysed.

FINDINGS: six themes of experiences of FGM among Eritrean women during pregnancy and childbirth were identified. They are (1) fear and anxiety; (2) extreme pain and long-term complications; (3) health-care professionals’ knowledge of circumcision and health-care system; (4) support from family, relatives and friends; (5) de-infibulation; and (6) decision against female circumcision of daughters.

KEY CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the Eritrean women had experiences of FGM and had suffered from its complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. Midwives and obstetricians should have competence in managing women with FGM, and they need increased understanding of cultural epistemology in order to be able to provide quality care to these women. At antenatal centres, circumcised women should be advised to de-infibulate before pregnancy. Special courses about anatomical differences should be offered to these women and their husbands. It is also important to inform them about Swedish law, which prohibits all forms of FGM.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

The encounters that rupture the myth: contradictions in midwives´descriptions and explanations of circumcised women immigrants´sexuality

Health Care Women Int. 2004 25(8): 743-760. 10.1080/07399330490475593

The encounters that rupture the myth: contradictions in midwives´descriptions and explanations of circumcised women immigrants´sexuality

Leval A, Widmark C, Tishelman C, Ahlberg BM

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to analyze how Swedish midwives (n = 26) discuss sexuality in circumcised African women patients. In focus groups and interviews, discussions concentrated on care provided to circumcised women, training received for this care, and midwives’ perceptions of female circumcision. An analytic expansion was performed for discussions pertaining to sexuality and gender roles. Results from the analysis show the following: (1) ethnocentric projections of sexuality; (2) a knowledge paradox regarding circumcision and sexuality; (3) the view of the powerless circumcised women; and (4) the fact that maternity wards function as meeting places between gender and culture where the encounters with men allow masculine hegemonic norms to be ruptured. We conclude that an increased understanding of cultural epistemology is needed to ensure quality care. The encounters that take place in obstetrical care situations can provide a space where gender and culture as prescribed norms can be questioned.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

“Never My Daughters”: A Qualitative Study Regarding Attitude Change Toward Female Genital Cutting Among Ethiopian and Eritrean Families in Sweden

Health Care Women Int. 2009 30(1-2): 114-133

“Never My Daughters”: A Qualitative Study Regarding Attitude Change Toward Female Genital Cutting Among Ethiopian and Eritrean Families in Sweden

Johnsdotter S, Moussa K, Carlbom A, Aregai R, Birgitta Essén B

ABSTRACT

To explore attitudes toward female genital cutting (FGC) in a migration perspective, qualitative interviews were conducted with men and women from Ethiopia and Eritrea in Sweden. We found firm rejection of all forms of FGC and absence of a guiding motive. Informants failed to see any meaning in upholding the custom. We conclude that children of Ethiopian or Eritrean parents resident in Sweden run little risk of being subjected to FGC. A societal structure prepared to deal with suspected cases of FGC with a high level of alertness should be combined with a healthy sceptical attitude toward exaggerations of risk estimates.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Swedish Health Care Providers’ Experience and Knowledge of Female Genital Cutting

Health Care for Women International. 2006 (27)8709-722

Swedish Health Care Providers’ Experience and Knowledge of Female Genital Cutting

Leila Tamaddon, Sara Johnsdotter, Jerker Liljestrand &Birgitta Essén

ABSTRACT

We sought to evaluate the experiences and knowledge of health care providers in Sweden regarding female genital cutting (FGC) as a health issue. Questionnaires (n = 2,707) were sent to providers in four major cities in Sweden and evaluated by means of descriptive statistics. Twenty-eight percent (n = 769/2,707) responded, of whom 60% had seen such patients. Seven providers, including 2 pediatricians, were suspicious of patients with signs of recent genital cutting. Ten percent had been asked to perform reinfibulation after delivery. Thirty-eight providers had received inquiries about the possibility of performing FGC in Sweden.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

No association between female circumcision and prolonged labour: a case control study of immigrant women giving birth in Sweden

European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2005 Aug;121(2):182-185

No association between female circumcision and prolonged labour: a case control study of immigrant women giving birth in Sweden

Essén B, Sjöberg N, Gudmundsson S, Östergren, Lindqvist PG

ABSTRACT

Objective: Several authors’ associate female genital circumcision with obstructed and prolonged labour, but the World Health Organization recently stated that no scientific evidence confirms such a relationship. The object of this study was to compare the duration of the second stage of labour between circumcised and non-circumcised women in a high-income community in Europe.

Methods: Sixty-eight circumcised nulliparous women originally from the Horn of Africa were compared to a group of 2486 non-circumcised nulliparous who gave birth at a university hospital setting in Sweden, 1990–1996. Defibulation was routinely performed during labour.

Findings: Circumcised women were found to have had second stage labour, which was significantly statistically shorter (35/53min, respectively, p0.001) and a lower risk of prolonged labour than the non-circumcised group.

Conclusions: Prolonged labour does not seem to be associated to female genital circumcision in affluent societies with high standards of obstetric care.

This article can be purchased online.

Female genital mutilation among antenatal care and contraceptive advice attendees in Sweden.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(7):716-22.

Female genital mutilation among antenatal care and contraceptive advice attendees in Sweden.

Litorp H, Franck M, Almroth L.

Division of International Health/IHCAR, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. helena.litorp@vgregion.se

OBJECTIVE: To explore knowledge of, attitudes toward and practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) among women originally from countries where FGM is customary attending antenatal care and contraceptive advice in Sweden. METHODS: Women in reproductive age living in Sweden who originate from countries where FGM is practiced coming for antenatal care or contraceptive advice at two maternity welfare centers in Stockholm were asked to participate. Interview administered questionnaires and gynecological examination were used for data collection. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Out of 49 women asked, 40 women agreed to participate, of whom 37 had undergone FGM. Most FGM operations had been performed by doctors or midwives. Half of the Muslim women said FGM was allowed by their religion. All women reporting to have undergone ‘sunna’, an allegedly mild form, had extensive damage to their genitals. At gynecological examination three cases of reinfibulation were detected, of which two had been performed after delivery in Sweden. Twenty-nine women had daughters and three had let their daughters undergo FGM, all of them before settling in Sweden. Problems related to delivery and sexual intercourse were the most commonly mentioned complications of FGM. CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of the self-reported form of FGM is low, which may have implications for research, interventions and health care. Although many women express negative attitudes toward FGM and know about serious complications, the religious justifications, the practice of FGM on daughters, reinfibulation on adults and medicalization of the practice indicate attitudes that favor of the continued practice of FGM.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Being different and vulnerable: experiences of immigrant African women who have been circumcised and sought maternity care in Sweden.

J Transcult Nurs. 2006 Jan;17(1):50-7.

Being different and vulnerable: experiences of immigrant African women who have been circumcised and sought maternity care in Sweden.

Berggren V, Bergström S, Edberg AK. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to explore the encounters with the health care system in Sweden of women from Somalia, Eritrea, and Sudan who have been genitally cut. A qualitative study was performed through interviews with 22 women originally from Somalia, Sudan, and Eritrea who were living in Sweden. The women experienced being different and vulnerable, suffering from being abandoned and mutilated, and they felt exposed in the encounter with the Swedish health care personnel and tried to adapt to a new cultural context. The results of this study indicate a need for more individualized, culturally adjusted care and support and a need for systematic education about female genital cutting for Swedish health care workers.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

[Genital mutilation of children is an offence. Do health services have a sufficient knowledge to see the problem?]

Lakartidningen. 2005 May 23-29;102(21):1637-8, 1640, 1642-3.

[Genital mutilation of children is an offence. Do health services have a sufficient knowledge to see the problem?]. [Article in Swedish]

Holmgren H, Almroth L, Berggren V, Bergström S.

Barn- och ungdomskliniken, Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad.

ABSTRACT

There are contradicting opinions whether female genital cutting (FGC) takes place in Sweden. The results from several studies indicate, however, that FGC is practiced on girls residing in Sweden. Almost no research has been done on girls on how they are affected by FGC. Thus there is no scientifically based knowledge on signs and symptoms in girls related to the practice, which can lead to cases passing unnoticed. Many health professionals feel they have poor knowledge about FGC. It is important to teach about FGC at medical and nursing schools and to make guidelines based on paediatric aspects of FGC.

There is no LINk to view this article online.

[Shortages in the management of genitally mutilated pregnant women in Swedish health care. Time to shift the focus from women’s genitals to their whole being]

Lakartidningen. 2004 Sep 23;101(39):3003-4, 3006.

[Shortages in the management of genitally mutilated pregnant women in Swedish health care. Time to shift the focus from women’s genitals to their whole being]. [Article in Swedish]

Essén B, Johnsdotter S.

Institutionen för obstetrik och gynekologi, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmö. birgitta.essen@obst.mas.lu.se

Comment in Lakartidningen. 2004 Oct 7;101(41):3193-4; author reply 3194.

There is no link to view this article online.