Tag Archives: Transcultural nursing

Female genital mutilation and transcultural nursing: adaptation of the Rising Sun Model

Contemp Nurse. 2016 Nov 29:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Female genital mutilation and transcultural nursing: adaptation of the Rising Sun Model.

Jiménez-Ruiz I, Almansa Martínez P


BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a widespread practice mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa and is considered an affront on the dignity and health of women and young girls.

OBJECTIVES: To establish a theoretical model, inspired by that of Madeleine Leininger, in order to examine the reasonings used to justify FGM.

METHODS: Theorization through bibliographic review.

Resuts and conclusions: The factors used to justify this act are diverse and convert the tradition into a form of cultural care. From this viewpoint, nurses might evaluate the supposed justifications via the Rising Sun Model in order to redirect such a practice through nursing interventions such as: research into propagating factors, sensitizing through hindering factors or health education, highlighting the contradictions existent in the justification of FGM.

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A mixed-method synthesis of knowledge, experiences and attitudes of health professionals to Female Genital Mutilation

J Adv Nurs. 2015 Oct 5. doi: 10.1111/jan.12823. [Epub ahead of print]

A mixed-method synthesis of knowledge, experiences and attitudes of health
professionals to Female Genital Mutilation

Reig-Alcaraz M, Siles-González J, Solano-Ruiz C.

AIM: To synthesize knowledge, attitudes and experiences of health professionals about Female Genital Mutilation.

BACKGROUND: Despite the World Health Organization campaigning to stop FGM, and it being illegal in many countries, the practice remains common in some countries and cultures. Migration has contributed to the growth of this practice in countries where it was not previously carried out.

DESIGN: Mixed-method synthesis.

DATA SOURCES: Search of ten electronic databases: 2006-2014. Manual scanning of reference lists and summary feeds from international organizations such as WHO, UN and UNICEF.

REVIEW METHODS: Thematic synthesis comparing country of origin where the practice was common with country of residence where migrant women affected by the practice reside. 17 included descriptive, quantitative, qualitative studies and grey literature studies in English or Spanish.

RESULTS: Seven themes were developed: Ignorance of FGM practice and its consequences; Lack of adherence to FGM protocols and guidelines; Socially constructed acceptance of FGM; Ignorance of legislation and legal status of FGM;  Condoning, sanctioning or supporting FGM; Lack of information and training; Nurses and Midwives as key to protecting and supporting girls and women.

CONCLUSIONS: Although some nurses and midwives are in the forefront of eradicating FGM this is counterbalanced by health professionals (including nurses and midwives) who condone, sanction or support the practice with some calling for medicalization of FGM as a legitimate procedure. Girls at risk need better protection and women affected need more competent and cultural care from health professionals. Health and legal systems, professional regulation and governance, and professional training require strengthening to eradicate FGM, prevent the medicalization of FGM as an acceptable procedure, and to better manage the lifelong consequences for affected girls and women.

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Simple questions can help nurses identify girls at risk of female genital mutilation.

Nurs Child Young People. 2015 Mar;27(2):7. doi: 10.7748/ncyp.27.2.7.s5.

Simple questions can help nurses identify girls at risk of female genital mutilation

Sprinks J

NURSES SHOULD have ‘professional curiosity’ and ask their patients simple questions to help them detect whether girls in their community are at risk of female genital mutilation (FGM).

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School nurses take lead on FGM.

Nurs Stand. 2014 Jul 1;28(43):22-3. doi: 10.7748/ns.28.43.22.s27.

School nurses take lead on FGM.

Trueland J.


Female genital mutilation is now recognised as an important public health issue in the UK, requiring action from nurses and midwives. School nurses in particular are being enlisted to identify and support girls at risk of FGM, and help teachers have the confidence to intervene. Every nurse needs to know how to support women living with the consequences of FGM.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Reflections on female circumcision discourse in Hargeysa, Somaliland: purified or mutilated?

Afr J Reprod Health. 2014 Jun;18(2):22-35.FREE

Reflections on female circumcision discourse in Hargeysa, Somaliland: purified or mutilated?

Vestbøstad E, Blystad A.


In communities where female circumcision is carried out, increasingly large segments of the population have been exposed to strong arguments against the practice. This study aimed to explore diverse discourses on female circumcision and the relationship between discourses and practice among informants who have been exposed both to local and global discourses on female circumcision. A qualitative study was carried out in 2009/10 in Hargeysa, Somaliland, employing interviews and informal discussion. The main categories of informants were nurses, nursing students, returned exile Somalis and development workers. The study findings suggest that substantial change has taken place about perceptions and practice related to female circumcision; the topic is today openly discussed, albeit more in the public than in the private arena. An important transformation moreover seems to be taking place primarily from the severe forms (pharaoni) to the less extensive forms (Sunna).

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Attitudes towards female genital mutilation: an integrative review.

Int Nurs Rev. 2013 Nov 15. doi: 10.1111/inr.12070. [Epub ahead of print]

Attitudes towards female genital mutilation: an integrative review.

Reig Alcaraz M, Siles González J, Solano Ruiz C.

Department of Nursing, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain.


BACKGROUND: Immigration and globalization processes have contributed to the international dissemination of practices such as female genital mutilation. Between 100 and 400 million girls and women have been genitally mutilated, and every year 3 million girls are at risk of being subjected to female genital mutilation.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the attitudes towards the practice of female genital mutilation in relation to different health systems and the factors that favour its discontinuation.

METHODS: An integrative review was performed of publications from the period 2006 to 2013 included in the MedLine, PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, CINAHL and CUIDEN databases.

RESULTS: We selected 16 studies focusing on diverse contexts that assessed the attitudes of both men and women regarding the perpetuation of this practice. Ten corresponded to studies conducted in countries of residence. Several areas of investigation were explored (factors contributing to the continuation of female genital mutilation, factors contributing to its discontinuation, feelings about the health system).

LIMITATIONS: It is possible that the relevant studies may not have been included given the limitations of the literature review and the invisibility of the phenomenon studied.

CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrates the strong social pressure to which women are subjected as regards the practice of female genital mutilation. However, many other factors can contribute to eroding beliefs and arguments in favour of this practice, such as the globalization, culture and social environment of countries in the West.

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING AND HEALTH POLICY: Nurses occupy an essential position in detecting and combating these practices.

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