Tag Archives: Uganda

Labia minora elongation as understood by Baganda male and female adolescents in Uganda.

Cult Health Sex. 2013 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print]LME

Labia minora elongation as understood by Baganda male and female adolescents in Uganda.

Martínez Pérez G, Namulondo H, Tomás Aznar C

ABSTRACT

Labia minora elongation is a common traditional female genital modification practice among the members of the Baganda ethnic group in Uganda. In 2002, a study carried out by the Padua Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation analysed how Baganda girls residing in Wakiso District graphically represented their experiences of labia minora elongation. In the present study, using the same methodology and in the same geographic setting 10 years later, we asked young men and women to prepare graphical representations of this rite. The purpose was to learn about how the practice is perceived and represented, describing the differences found in their testimonies, and comparing the findings with the former study. A total of 36 respondents (21 male and 15 female), aged between 9 and 15 years old participated in the study. The drawings were analysed using a three-themes analysis frame with a focus on setting, subject and operator. Differences were detected between how young women and men represented this practice. Educational interventions may be helpful to address the doubts, concerns, anxieties and misconceptions that Baganda youth may have concerning traditional genital practices.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

ELONGATION: OKUKYALIRA ENSIKO, the Buganda way of enhancing sexual pleasure

Ekimeeza webpage. MAY 21, 2012 LME

ELONGATION: OKUKYALIRA ENSIKO, the Buganda way of enhancing sexual pleasure

(No author)

EXTRACT

Humanity’s pursuit for merit is not restricted to the open. Even in utmost privacy, when the matter at hand is entirely the business of a secretive twosome, mankind has always sought to excel and impress.

To many men, performance must impress even if it means applying drugs as dangerous as Viagra, Levitra and Cialis. Many others have tried hazardous penis enlargement products. It is women, however, that have come up with the most creative and most awesome ways of enhancing their sexual performance.

In some cultures, glitters and jewels are applied down there to boost the area’s attractiveness. In parts of East and Central Africa women invented a sexual stimulus method that the people of Buganda came to know as Okukyalira ensiko.

This tradition of pulling and elongating the parts of the vagina variously known as labia minora, inner labia or inner lips enjoys pervasive reverence in central Uganda. In western Uganda, women of the Bahima clan used to make their labia minora long enough to cover the vaginal opening, raising barricades in the path of rapists. As members of the clan moved to towns and increasingly started wearing clothes following the 1986 change of government, the fear of rape went away with the modification of the vagina…

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula.

Soc Sci Med. 2009 Mar;68(5):971-9. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.12.006. Epub 2009 Jan 6.

Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula.

Peterman A, Johnson K.

University of North Carolina, Department of Public Policy, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3435, USA. apeterma@email.unc.edu

ABSTRACT

Obstetric fistula, characterized by urinary or fecal incontinence via the vagina, has begun to receive attention on the international public health agenda, however less attention has been given to traumatic fistula. Field reports indicate that trauma contributes to the burden of vaginal fistula, especially in regions wrought by civil unrest, however evidence is largely anecdotal or facility-based. This paper specifically examines the co-occurrence of incontinence and two potential sources of trauma: sexual violence and female genital cutting using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys in Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia. Multivariate selection models are used to control for sampling differences by country. Results indicate that sexual violence is a significant determinant of incontinence in Rwanda and Malawi, however not in Uganda. Simulations predict that elimination of sexual violence would result in from a 7 to a 40% reduction of the total burden of incontinence. In contrast, no evidence is found that female genital cutting contributes to incontinence and this finding is robust for types of cutting and high risk samples. Results point to the importance of reinforcing prevention programs which seek to address prevention of sexual violence and for the integration of services to better serve women experiencing both sexual violence and incontinence.

This article can be purchased in this LINK.

Social context of HIV infection in Uganda.

Health Transit Rev. 1995;5 Suppl:1-26.LME

Social context of HIV infection in Uganda.

Adeokun LA, Twa-Twa J, Ssekiboobo A, Nalwadda R.

Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Some of the important policy and research implications of accumulating HIV/AIDS data are being ignored because of the attraction of social science research focused on the “multiple sexual mechanism’ of infection and transmission. Attention is drawn to the other policy and research issues relating to information on the timing of infection through a reanalysis of existing data on cumulative AIDS cases. The most urgent need is to supplement the mainstream research on risk groups with studies of the timing and circumstances of entry into sexual activity in the pre-teen years.

PIP:

Some of the important policy and research implications of HIV/AIDS data are being ignored because of the focus of social science research upon the multiple sexual mechanism of infection and transmission. Attention is drawn to the other policy and research issues relating to information on the timing of infection through a re-analysis of existing data on cumulative AIDS cases. However, the most urgent need is to supplement the mainstream research on risk groups with studies of the timing and circumstances of entry into sexual activity during the pre-teen years. The authors comment upon the social science response to the epidemic. This paper was written to help broaden the scope of discussion of the socioeconomic context of the rapid reproduction of infections and to focus upon the role of pre-teen girl-child sexuality in the dynamics of the epidemic.

There is no link to view this article online.

The right to culture and the culture of rights: a critical perspective on women’s sexual rights in Africa

Feminist Legal Studies. Apr 2008 16(1):47 LMEFREE

The right to culture and the culture of rights: a critical perspective on women’s sexual rights in Africa

Tamale S

NO ABSTRACT AVAILABLE FOR THIS PAPER

This paper can be accessed in this LINK

 

Women’s Sexuality as a Site of Control & Resistance: Views on the African Context

Keynote Address delivered at the International Conference on Bride price under the theme, “Coalition and Action to Safeguard Women and Children in the Family, “under the auspices of the Mifumi Project, February 17, 2004 at Makerere University, KampalaFREELME

Women’s Sexuality as a Site of Control & Resistance: Views on the African Context 

Tamale S

Faculty of Law – Makerere University

EXTRACT

…Tutelage begun at puberty just before a girl starts menstruating, when she would “visit the bush” under the tutelage of her Ssenga.,24 Visiting the bush involves a procedure of stretching or elongating the labia minor of a woman. Traditionally, among the Baganda, the meaning attached to this cultural practice was a tightly kept secret that was associated with female enhanced arousal in foreplay. The purported and commonly touted meaning of the elongated labia was that they enhanced erotic pleasure of a man who came in sexual contact with them. Of course this practice was viewed through a completely different light by the imperialists who came across it. They perceived it as a barbaric mutilation of the female genitals and, today it has been condemned and classified as “Type IV FGM”!…

This conference paper can be accessed in this LINK

Psycholinguistic approaches to ritual labia minora elongation among the Baganda women of Uganda

Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision. 2006, pp 57-64LME

Psycholinguistic approaches to ritual labia minora elongation among the Baganda women of Uganda 

Villa E., Grassivaro Gallo P

ABSTRACT

Ritual elongation of the labia minora is a particular expansive modification of the external genitalia exercised for cultural motives (FGM type 4 – WHO 1996). The practice is common among the Baganda women of Uganda, where a variety of terms describe the rite.

Psycholinguistic analysis was conducted both in present day Africa, where elongation of the labia minora results from ritual manipulation, and through the bibliographical accounts of western authors (anthropologists and doctors) from the 1950s/60s.

A semantic polarization results in the linguistic expressions. In Africa, the positive connotation of terms used to describe the rite indicates its substantial valorisation. The vocabulary used by western authors, however, includes reference to aspects of rural Europe suggestive of poverty and ignorance (“apron”), or symbolic ridicule of the manipulated feature, equating it to the ear of a Coker Spaniel (Spaniel ear nymphae).

This book chapter can be purchased in this LINK

In Uganda, elders work with the UN to safeguard women’s health.

UN Chron. 1999;36(1):31.

In Uganda, elders work with the UN to safeguard women’s health.

Eliah E
ABSTRACT
This article reports on the 1998 UN population award that was given to Uganda’s Sabiny Elders Association (SEA) for its work in combatting female circumcision (FC) among the Sabiny people in Eastern Uganda’s Kapchorwa district. The elders aimed at documenting local history and preserving the rich cultural heritage of Sabiny society while promoting changes in various cultural traditions that were inconsistent with modern ways of living. They also aimed to promote education especially among girls, to protect the region’s environment and wildlife, and to develop its traditional medicine. Helping the victims of HIV/AIDS was a part of their goals. The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) launched its REACH program in Kapchorwa to assist the Sabiny community in bringing about its own social change and to join with them in eliminating FC, in 1996. A more appropriate ritual for ushering a girl into womanhood is being contemplated.

There is no link to view this article online.

Elongation of labia minora in Uganda: including Baganda men in a risk reduction education programme.

Cult Health Sex. 2011 Jan;13(1):45-57. LME

Elongation of labia minora in Uganda: including Baganda men in a risk reduction education programme.

Martínez Pérez G, Namulondo H

Dept. Fisiatry and Nursing, Fac. Health Sciences, Univ. Zaragoza (Spain). gmartinezgabas@gmail.com

Okukyalira ensiko or ‘visiting the bush’ is how, in Uganda, the Baganda people name the practice of elongating the labia minora, which young girls start performing before menarche. As a mandatory rite of passage that identifies membership of the tribe, one of its main purposes is to enhance sexual pleasure for both male and female partners. The conditions in which it is practiced involve certain physical health risks. In this qualitative study carried out in Wakiso district, a semi-structured interview was conducted among 31 Baganda men, in order to understand their perceptions, attitudes and knowledge toward the way in which their daughters practise labia minora elongation. According to our results, men highly value this practice for its capacity to enhance sexual stimulation even though they are aware of its risks. Since genital stretching is likely to endure, the authors discuss the possibility of addressing Baganda men by health workers in an education programme aimed at minimising the risks attached to the procedure and, hence, improving the sexual and reproductive health of Baganda girls.

This article can purchased in this LINK

The Book of Mormon (review)

Theatre Journal. March 2012;64(1):99-101

The Book of Mormon (review). Book, music, and lyrics by Trey Parker, Robert Lopez, and Matt Stone. Directed and choreographed by Casey Nicholaw. Eugene O’Neill Theatre, New York City. 31 May 2011.

 Sebesta J.

Lamar University

A collaboration between Julie Taymor, a theatre artist whom I admire, and two members of my favorite band, U2, promised to be a match made in musical heaven for me. However, this promise went unfulfilled when I saw Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark in its original version in January 2011. Famously tech-heavy, confusing, stylistically promiscuous, and even dangerous, the production left me little desire to return five months later upon its revision. Instead, I found my heaven, ironically, in “Spooky Mormon Hell [Dream]” and other cheeky, irreverent, and downright raunchy production numbers in Trey Parker, Robert Lopez, and Matt Stone’s The Book of Mormon. In spite of rather unmemorable tunes, the musical managed to create near-perfection by marrying traditional musical theatre structure with postmodern pastiche and contemporary relevance through the choreography, scenic design, and themes that explored such subjects as transition, American identity, and a longing for utopia.

The Book of Mormon (BOM) follows two squeaky-clean Mormon youths, Elder Price (Andrew Rannells) and Elder Cunningham (Josh Gad), on a reluctant mission to Africa (they were hoping for Orlando), where instead of finding eager converts they encounter a poverty- and AIDs-stricken village controlled by a warlord named “Butt Fucking Naked.” Predictable cultural misunderstandings and crises of faith ensue, but the interventions of an idealistic young villager named Nabulungi (Nikki M. James) under threat of female circumcision helps to unite the two worlds. BOM is about religion in all its complexities, but it is as much about transition: the Mormons’ from Western to non-Western culture, from boyhood to manhood, from cultural naïveté to awareness. Nabulungi shifts from abjection to agency, her fellow Ugandans still moving from colonial victimization to postcolonial independence.

Parker and Stone, no strangers to movie musicals (Cannibal! The Musical; South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut), acknowledge the influence of Rodgers and Hammerstein on the structure of BOM. The girl-meets- boy story and familiar song types (optimistic opening number: “Hello!”; the “I want” character song: “Two by Two”; eleven o’clock number: “Joseph Smith American Moses”) are all present, as is a happy ending. By tapping into the conventions of the quintessential American musical, BOM mirrors the inherent American-ness of Mormonism, and the optimism exuded by the show through the rousing finale “Tomorrow Is a Latter Day” reflects the inherent optimism of the overall philosophy of the Latter Day Saints.

But the significance of BOM lays not in its following of traditions—exemplified so fully thematically and structurally in another religious-themed musical, Fiddler on the Roof—but in its break from them. This break was explicit in such aspects as the gay (albeit closeted) Mormon men’s chorus; the no-holds-barred profanity and irreverence (the “Hakuna Matata” parody “Hasa Diga Eebowai” translates as “Fuck You, God”); the talk of raping babies, maggots in the scrotum, the holy clitoris, and curing AIDS by fornicating with a frog. More implicitly, choreographer Casey Nicholaw’s pastiche of musical theatre dance styles subverted the more common tradition of choreographic homogeneity within a show. This radical mix of styles included Martha Graham-style Americana alongside rousing militaristic marches, as well as the repression-themed “Turn It Off,” replete with splashy tap finale, in contrast to the previous African-dance, polyrhythm-infused number “Hasa Diga Eebowai.” Even soul, in “All-American Prophet,” and hip-hop dance à la boy bands, in the hilarious “Man Up,” made appearances. Through all these disparate styles, Nicholaw consistently physicalized the optimistic spirit of Mormonism by choreographing largely to upbeat, fast-paced musical [End Page 99] numbers, his dance vocabulary often vertical and extended upward, perhaps reaching for the utopic heaven toward which the Mormons—and eventually the Africans they encounter—strive.

This theatre review can be accessed in this LINK