Tag Archives: United Kingdom

Female genital mutilation: implications for clinical practice

Br J Nurs. 2017 Oct 12;26(18):S22-S27. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2017.26.18.S22.

Female genital mutilation: implications for clinical practice

von Rège I, Campion D


Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an established cultural practice in over 30 countries. It has no health benefits, carries a high risk of physical and psychological harm, and is illegal in many countries including the UK. A sensitive approach is required, both in the management of complications and prevention of this practice. This article discusses the prevalence and classification of FGM, and offers practical advice to nurses and midwives involved in general and obstetric care. Legal aspects, including safeguarding responsibilities and the mandatory duty to report FGM in England and Wales, are outlined.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Reshaping the global health agenda: female genital cutting.

FREEMed Educ Online. 2016 Jan;21(1):31023. doi: 10.3402/meo.v21.31023.

Reshaping the global health agenda: female genital cutting.

Al-Saadi N, Khan H, Auckburally S, Al-Saadi A, Khan T.


Female genital cutting (FGC) is described by the World Health Organization as ‘all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons’. Its practice is common in at least 29 countries across Africa and the Middle East– currently affecting 125 million girls and women worldwide. Due to globalization, specifically increasing trends in migration, instances of FGC are increasingly common in the developed world. For example, 137,000 girls residing in the UK in 2011 were found to have undergone FGC. Despite this, the increasing trend of FGC in the developed world has not been uniformly met with suitable mechanisms to support these patients…

This article is available in this LINK

Are obstetric outcomes affected by female genital mutilation?

Int Urogynecol J. 2017 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s00192-017-3466-5. [Epub ahead of

Are obstetric outcomes affected by female genital mutilation?

Balachandran AA, Duvalla S, Sultan AH, Thakar R


INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Female genital mutilation (FGM) has been associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes, such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), perineal trauma, genital fistulae, obstructed labour and stillbirth. The prevalence of FGM has increased in the UK over the last decade. There are currently no studies available that have explored the obstetric impact of FGM in the UK. The aim of our study was to investigate the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of women with FGM when compared with the general population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of consecutive pregnant women with FGM over a 5-year period between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Each woman with FGM was matched for age, ethnicity, parity and gestation with subsequent patients without FGM (control cohort) over the same 5-year period. Outcomes assessed were mode of delivery, duration of labour, estimated blood loss, analgaesia, perineal trauma and foetal outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 242 eligible women (121 FGM, 121 control) were identified for the study. There was a significant increase in the use of episiotomy in the FGM group (p = 0.009) and a significant increase in minor PPH in the control group during caesarean sections (p = 0.0001). There were no differences in all other obstetric and neonatal parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In our unit, FGM was not associated with an increased incidence of adverse obstetric and foetal morbidity or mortality.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel

Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2016 Jul;77(7):419-23. doi: 10.12968/hmed.2016.77.7.419.

Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

Cropp G, Armstrong J


Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Fighting to combat FGM

Nurs Times. 2016 Jun 22-28;112(25):26.FREE

Fighting to combat FGM.

Cordova S


Joanne McEwan is truly applying her knowledge to help women affected by FGM

joanne mc ewan

Joanne McEwan plays many roles in her daily life – nurse, mother, and health visitor in the community of Oxfordshire, to name a few. Her schedule is already full, but that hasn’t stopped her from adding yet another title to the list: app developer, for an app that will help women who have been affected by female genital mutilation, or FGM.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Educating about female genital mutilation.

Educ Prim Care. 2016 Oct 28:1-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Educating about female genital mutilation.

Holmes V, Farrington R, Mulongo P

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a ‘requirement’ of faith.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Uncertain future for initiative against FGM in the UK

Lancet. 2016 Jul 23;388(10042):326. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31147-3.

Uncertain future for initiative against FGM in the UK

Devi S


Activists say that a community-based programme to tackle female genital mutilation in the UK needs support from central or local government to continue. Sharmila Devi reports.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

“FGM must now be reported but reinfibulation guidance is needed”

FREENurs Times. 2015 Mar 4-10;111(10):7.

“FGM must now be reported but reinfibulation guidance is needed”

Richens Y


Since its inception, it has lobbied for a confidential national reporting system.

There were two reasons for this: the first is that as a group of clinicians, we could not provide effective evidence-based care for women if we did not know how many women had been subject to this abhorrent procedure; the second is that we wanted to provide clinical education for midwives, nurses, health visitors and doctors so that the best care can be provided to women.

With the support of Baroness Rendell, who has been raising questions in the House of Lords for nearly two decades, we met with Jane Ellison MP. It was a real meeting of minds and it was clear that, from this meeting, we would finally make progress when she agreed that it was nigh on impossible for us to address a problem in the UK without knowing the true extent of it….

This article is available in this LINK

Female genital mutilation in children presenting to a London safeguarding clinic: a case series

Arch Dis Child. 2015 Jul 27. pii: archdischild-2015-308243. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-308243. [Epub ahead of print]

Female genital mutilation in children presenting to a London safeguarding clinic: a case series.

Hodes D, Armitage A, Robinson K, Creighton SM


OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation and management of children referred with suspected female genital mutilation (FGM) to a UK safeguarding clinic.

DESIGN AND SETTING: Case series of all children under 18 years of age referred with suspected FGM between June 2006 and May 2014.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: These include indication for referral, demographic data, circumstances of FGM, medical symptoms, type of FGM, investigations and short-term outcome.

RESULTS: Of the 47 girls referred, 27 (57%) had confirmed FGM. According to the WHO classification of genital findings, FGM type 1 was found in 2 girls, type 2 in 8 girls and type 4 in 11 girls. No type 3 FGM was seen. The circumstances of FGM were known in 17 cases, of which 12 (71%) were performed by a health professional or in a medical setting (medicalisation). Ten cases were potentially illegal, yet despite police involvement there have been no prosecutions.

CONCLUSIONS: This study is an important snapshot of FGM within the UK paediatric population. The most frequent genital finding was type 4 FGM with no tissue damage or minimal scarring. FGM was performed at a young age, with 15% reported under the age of 1 year. The study also demonstrated significant medicalisation of FGM, which matches recent trends in international data. Type 4 FGM performed in infancy is easily missed on examination and so vigilance in assessing children with suspected FGM is essential.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Voices – Join forces to help stop female genital mutilation, says Jane Cummings

Nurs Stand. 2015 Aug 12;29(50):24. doi: 10.7748/ns.29.50.24.s24.

Voices – Join forces to help stop female genital mutilation, says Jane Cummings.

Cummings J


At this time of year, some young girls may be taken abroad to undergo female genital mutilation.

This article can be accessed in this LINK