Tag Archives: United States

Knowledge and attitudes toward female genital cutting among West African male immigrants in New York City.

Health Care Women Int. 2017 May;38(5):463-477. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2017.1294593. Epub 2017 Feb 13.

Knowledge and attitudes toward female genital cutting among West African male immigrants in New York City. 

Akinsulure-Smith AM, Chu T.

ABSTRACT

In this project, we explored knowledge and attitudes toward female genital cutting (FGC) in a survey of 107 West African immigrants, including 36 men. Men in this study were as knowledgeable about the health consequences of FGC as women, though with a less nuanced understanding. They also rejected the practice at rates comparable to women. Despite this knowledge and rejection of FGC, most men did not express a personal preference for women with or without FGC in intimate relationships. Future research and interventions must explore men’s opposition to FGC and emphasize the impact of FGC on their partners’ gynecological and reproductive health.

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Do the Benefits of Male Circumcision Outweigh the Risks? A Critique of the Proposed CDC Guidelines

Front Pediatr. 2015 Mar 18;3:18. doi: 10.3389/fped.2015.00018. eCollection 2015. FREE

Do the Benefits of Male Circumcision Outweigh the Risks? A Critique of the Proposed CDC Guidelines

Earp BD

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have announced a set of provisional guidelines concerning male circumcision, in which they suggest that the benefits of the surgery outweigh the risks. I offer a critique of the CDC position. Among other concerns, I suggest that the CDC relies more heavily than is warranted on studies from Sub-Saharan Africa that neither translate well to North American populations nor to circumcisions performed before an age of sexual debut; that it employs an inadequate conception of risk in its benefit vs. risk analysis; that it fails to consider the anatomy and functions of the penile prepuce (i.e., the part of the penis that is removed by circumcision); that it underestimates the adverse consequences associated with circumcision by focusing on short-term surgical complications rather than long-term harms; that it portrays both the risks and benefits of circumcision in a misleading manner, thereby undermining the possibility of obtaining informed consent; that it evinces a superficial and selective analysis of the literature on sexual outcomes associated with circumcision; and that it gives less attention than is desirable to ethical issues surrounding autonomy and bodily integrity. I conclude that circumcision before an age of consent is not an appropriate health-promotion strategy.

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Female Circumcision: Perceptions of Clients and Caregivers

Journal of American College Health,1985, 33(5), 193-197

Female Circumcision: Perceptions of Clients and Caregivers

Shaw E

ABSTRACT

Female circumcision is a custom which continues to be widespread in many parts of the word, yet very little is known about the practice by health care providers in the United States. Student health services in colleges and universities with large populations of international students need to be prepared to meet the health needs of this group of women. This paper discusses basic information about the practice of female circumcision. It summarizes data from a descriptive study conducted to identify specific needs and concerns of a group of 12 circumcised women who have used the western medical system while living in the United States. It also discusses the results of a follow-up study based on a questionnaire sent to 95 student health centers in the United States that had a foreign student population base of more than 500. Responses to the questionnaire identified the problems and concerns that student health providers encountered while caring for circumcised women. Suggestions for improved care are included from the perspective of both the client and the student health service personnel.

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(Im)perishable Pleasure, (In)destructible Desire: Sexual Themes in U.S. and English News Coverage of Male Circumcision and Female Genital Cutting.

J Sex Res. 2014 Sep 25:1-16. [Epub ahead of print]

(Im)perishable Pleasure, (In)destructible Desire: Sexual Themes in U.S. and English News Coverage of Male Circumcision and Female Genital Cutting.

Carpenter LM, Kettrey HH.

ABSTRACT

Under what conditions do sexual pleasure and desire get addressed in news coverage of sexual health issues like female genital cutting (FGC) and male circumcision (MC)? In this study we employed an embodied ethnosexuality approach to analyze sexual themes in 1,902 items published from 1985 to 2009 in 13 U.S. and 8 English newspapers and news magazines. Journalists’ discussions of sexual pleasure, desire, control, problems, and practices differed in quantity and quality depending on the practice and nation to which they pertained. News coverage in both nations presented FGC as impeding female sexual pleasure, desire, and activity in ways that reinforce (hetero)sexist understandings of sexuality. The English press depicted MC as diminishing male sexuality, whereas U.S. papers showed it as enhancing male sexuality. These patterns are influenced by, and serve to reinforce, cultural norms of embodiment and ethnosexual boundaries based on gender, race, and nationality. They may, in turn, shape public understandings of FGC and MC as social problems.

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Increasing certified nurse-midwives’ confidence in managing the obstetric care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting.

J Midwifery Womens Health. 2013 Jul;58(4):451-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-2011.2012.00262.x.

Increasing certified nurse-midwives’ confidence in managing the obstetric care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting.

Jacoby SD, Smith A.

INTRODUCTION: In response to an increase in the number of women who immigrate to the United States from countries that practice female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C; infibulation), US clinicians can expand their knowledge and increase confidence in caring for women who have experienced infibulation. This article describes a comprehensive education program on FGM/C and the results of a pilot study that examined its effect on midwives’ confidence in caring for women with infibulation.

METHODS: An education program was developed that included didactic information, case studies, a cultural roundtable, and a hands-on skills laboratory of deinfibulation and repair. Eleven certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) participated in this pilot study. Participants completed a measure-of-confidence survey tool before and after the education intervention.

RESULTS: Participants reported increased confidence in their ability to provide culturally competent care to immigrant women with infibulation when comparisons of preeducation and posteducation survey confidence logs were completed.

DISCUSSION: Following the education program and the knowledge gained from it, these midwives were more confident about their ability to perform anterior episiotomy and to deliver necessary care to women with FGM/C in a culturally competent context. This education program should be expanded as more women who have experienced infibulation immigrate to the United States.

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The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches.

Obstet Gynecol Int. 2013;2013:324362. doi: 10.1155/2013/324362. Epub 2013 Jul 29. FREE

The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches.

Brown K, Beecham D, Barrett H.

Faculty of Business, Environment and Society, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK.

ABSTRACT

With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU’s Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities.

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Female genital cutting: an evidence-based approach to clinical management for the primary care physician.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Jun;88(6):618-29. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.04.004.

Female genital cutting: an evidence-based approach to clinical management for the primary care physician.

Hearst AA, Molnar AM.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

ABSTRACT

The United States has more than 1.5 million immigrants from countries in Africa and the Middle East where female genital cutting (FGC) is known to occur. Often, FGC occurs in infancy and childhood in the countries where it is practiced, but patients of any age can present with complications. Lack of understanding of this common problem can potentially alienate and lower quality of care for this patient population. We provide an introduction to the practice of FGC and practice guidelines for the primary care physician. We reviewed original research, population-based studies, and legal research from PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL plus, PsycINFO, and Legal Trac. The terms searched included female genital cutting, female genital circumcision, and female genital mutilation alone and with the term complications or health consequences; no limit on date published. Legal databases were searched using the above terms, as well as international law and immigration law. Editorials and review articles were excluded. This review discusses the different types of FGC, important cultural considerations for physicians caring for patients with FGC, the common early and late medical complications and their management, and psychosocial issues associated with FGC. Current laws pertaining to FGC are briefly reviewed, as well as implications for patients seeking asylum status in the United States because of FGC. Finally, the article presents evidence-based, culturally sensitive approaches to discussions of FGC with girls and women for whom this is an issue.

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Benin: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC)

United States Department of State. 2001.FREE

Benin: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC), 1 June 2001 

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EXTRACT

…The Benin chapter of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) conducted a survey in 1992. It estimated that the percentage of women who have undergone this procedure is close to 30 percent. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the percentage is closer to 50 percent. However, this figure appears high to many locally based physicians and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

The 1992 survey found that while Type II or excision is widely practiced, the practice is not uniformly distributed throughout the country. It occurs in the northern part of the country, particularly in the departments of Atacora, Borgou, Zou and Alibori. It also occurs in some communities in the southern coastal department of Oueme. The ethnic groups most affected are the Bariba, Peul, Boko, Baatonau, Wama and Nago. The Wama and the Peul (Fulani) ethnic groups perpetrate the practice in Atacora…

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Female circumcision: double standards.

Pract Midwife. 2012 Dec;15(11):27-8.

Female circumcision: double standards.

Adikibi A.

Salford University.

ABSTRACT

Female circumcision is an emotive subject condemned by all and thought to be practised by less developed countries than the United Kingdom (UK) and United States of America (USA). However, this is now a growing business among western cosmetic surgeons as these two nations become entangled in the search for ‘the perfect body’. The difference lies only in the who, why, where and by whom the operations are performed in these two distinct worlds. The most frightening observation is the rate at which this business is growing in the National Health Service (NHS) and public sector.

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US paediatricians withdraw guidance on female genital cutting after criticisms.

BMJ. 2010 Jun 1;340:c2922. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c2922.

US paediatricians withdraw guidance on female genital cutting after criticisms.

Kmietowicz Z.

EXTRACT

The American Academy of Pediatrics has retracted its 2010 policy statement on female genital cutting after criticism and confirmed its opposition to all forms of mutilation, however minor.

Last month the UK Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health voiced concerns about the guidance, which suggested that doctors …

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