Tag Archives: Vagina/surgery

Subheading of MeSH tag “vagina”

[G-spot does not exist: G-spot amplification (i.e. G-spot Augmentation, G-Spotplasty) is a female genital mutilation type IV.] [Article in French]

Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2014 Sep 22. pii: S0294-1260(14)00110-1. doi: 10.1016/j.anplas.2014.07.005. [Epub ahead of print]

[G-spot does not exist: G-spot amplification (i.e. G-spot Augmentation, G-Spotplasty) is a female genital mutilation type IV.] [Article in French]

Puppo V.

There is no ABSTRACT available for this article.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder after ritual female genital surgery among bedouin in Israel: myth or reality?

Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;10(6):453-6.FREE

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder after ritual female genital surgery among bedouin in Israel: myth or reality?

Applebaum J, Cohen H, Matar M, Abu Rabia Y, Kaplan Z.

Ministry of Health, Mental Health Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. juliaa@bgu.ac.il


OBJECTIVE: Ritual female genital surgery (RFGS), or female circumcision, is common among certain ethnic groups in Asia and Africa and describes a range of practices involving complete or partial removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Several studies in African populations, in which more severe forms of RFGS are performed, reported an increased prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric syndromes among circumcised women than among uncircumcised controls. Among the Bedouin population in southern Israel, RFGS has become a symbolic operation without major mutilation. However, in a study performed in 1999, Bedouin women after RFGS reported difficulties in mother-daughter relationships and trust. This pilot study assessed the mental health of Bedouin women from southern Israel after RFGS compared to age-matched controls without RFGS.

METHOD: The psychological impact of RFGS was assessed in 19 circumcised Bedouin women compared to 18 age-matched controls. The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale, Symptom Checklist, Impact of Event Scale, and a demographics and background questionnaire were used to assess traumatization and psychiatric illnesses. The study was conducted from March to July 2007.

RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevailing procedure of RFGS among the Bedouin population of southern Israel had no apparent effect on mental health.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Cosmetic genitoplasty: It’s female genital mutilation and should be prosecuted.

BMJ. 2007 Jun 30;334(7608):1335.FREE

Cosmetic genitoplasty: It’s female genital mutilation and should be prosecuted.

Berer M.

Comment on BMJ. 2007 May 26;334(7603):1090-2.


Liao and Creighton ask how healthcare providers in the United Kingdom should respond to requests for “genitoplasty,”1 or what two UK websites call “labial reduction” and “female genital reshaping.”2 3 This procedure, which entails “the partial or total removal of the external female genital organs for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons,”4 is a criminal offence in the UK under …

This article can be accessed for free in this LINK

Female circumcision: double standards.

Pract Midwife. 2012 Dec;15(11):27-8.

Female circumcision: double standards.

Adikibi A.

Salford University.


Female circumcision is an emotive subject condemned by all and thought to be practised by less developed countries than the United Kingdom (UK) and United States of America (USA). However, this is now a growing business among western cosmetic surgeons as these two nations become entangled in the search for ‘the perfect body’. The difference lies only in the who, why, where and by whom the operations are performed in these two distinct worlds. The most frightening observation is the rate at which this business is growing in the National Health Service (NHS) and public sector.

There is no LINK to view this article online.

The issue of reinfibulation.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010 May;109(2):93-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.01.001. Epub 2010 Feb 6.

The issue of reinfibulation.

Serour GI.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, International Islamic Center for Population Studies and Research, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. giserour1@link.net


Reinfibulation is resuturing after delivery or gynecological procedures of the incised scar tissue resulting from infibulation. Despite the global fight against female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), reinfibulation of previously mutilated or circumcised women is still performed in various countries around the world. A good estimate of the prevalence of reinfibulation is difficult to obtain, but it can be inferred that 6.5-10.4million women are likely to have been reinfibulated worldwide. Women who undergo reinfibulation have little influence on the decision-making and are usually persuaded by the midwife or birth attendant to undergo the procedure immediately following labor or gynecological operation. Although medicalization of reinfibulation may reduce its immediate risks, it has no effect on the incidence of long-term risks. Reinfibulation is performed mainly for the financial benefit of the operator, and cultural values that have been perpetuated for generations. Reinfibulation has no benefits and is associated with complications for the woman and the unborn child. Its medicalization violates the medical code of ethics and should be abandoned. International and national efforts should be combined to eradicate this practice.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Clitoral cyst: not a very rare complication of female genital mutilation

Fertil Steril. 2009 92(3): S118

Clitoral cyst: not a very rare complication of female genital mutilation

Rouzi AA


No abstract is available for this article

This article can be purchased in this LINK

[Results of surgical clitoral repair after ritual excision: 453 cases]

Gynecol Obstet Fertil. Dec 2006 34(12); 1137–1141

Résultats de la réparation chirurgicale du clitoris après mutilation sexuelle : 453 cas

[Results of surgical clitoral repair after ritual excision: 453 cases] [Article in French]

Foldes P, Louis-Sylvestre C


Objective. Ritual excision is responsible for urologic, gynaecologic and obstetrical complications, whose surgical treatment has been fully described. Sexual sequelae deserve the same attention. We describe and analyze the results of a surgical procedure for clitoral rehabilitation.

Patients and methods. Women requesting this surgery between 1992 and 2005 have been prospectively included in this study. The skin covering the stump was resected and the clitoris identified. The suspensor ligament was sectioned in order to mobilize the stump, the sclerous tissues were removed from the extremity and the neo glans brought to a normal situation. Pre operative pain and clitoral impairment were assessed within five categories. The same was done with anatomical and functional postoperative results at six months.

Results. Four hundred and fifty-three patients have been completely evaluated. Hospitalisation stay was 24 hours and the procedure never lasted more than 30 minutes. Minor early complications were recorded in 58 patients (hematoma, disrupture of the suture, pain). Four patients reported persisting pain at four months. A visible clitoral massif could be restored in 87% of the cases and a real improvement in clitoral function was obtained in 75% of the patients.

Discussion and conclusion. This surgical procedure is easy and reliable. It provides promising cosmetic and functional results with minor complications.

This article can be purchased in this LINK


Creighton: Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation.

Lancet. 2012 Oct 27;380(9852):1469; author reply 1469-70. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61836-4.

Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation.

Creighton S, Bewley S, Liao LM.

Comment on Lancet. 2012 Jul 14;380(9837):134-41.

This article can be purchased in this LINK


Judging the Other: Responding to Traditional Female Genital Surgeries

Hastings Center Report. Article first published online: 23 MAR 2012. DOI: 10.2307/3527930. May-June 1996 26(3)31–40,

Judging the Other: Responding to Traditional Female Genital Surgeries

Sandra D. Lane and Robert A. Rubinstein


Western feminists, physicians, and ethicists condemn the traditional genital surgeries performed on women in some non-Western cultures. But coming to moral judgment is not the end of the story; we must also decide what to do about our judgments. We must learn to work respectfully with, not independently of, local resources for cultural self-examination and change.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Labial surgery for well women: a review of the literature

BJOG. 2010 Jan; 117(1): 20-25.

Labial surgery for well women: a review of the literature

Liao L-M, Michala L, Creighton SM


This review investigates the quality and content of published reports relating to labial surgery for well women. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles between 1950 and April 2009. Forty articles were identified, 18 of which included patient data. The specification of the study design was unavailable in 15 of the 18 papers; the remaining three were retrospective reports. No prospective, randomised or controlled studies were found. All reports claimed high levels of patient satisfaction and contained anecdotes pertaining to success. Medically nonessential surgery to the labia minora is being promoted as an effective treatment for women’s complaints, but no data on clinical effectiveness exist.

This review can be accessed in this LINK