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Type I Female Genital Mutilation: A Cause of Completely Closed Vagina

J Sex Med. 2014 May 30. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12605. [Epub ahead of print]

Type I Female Genital Mutilation: A Cause of Completely Closed Vagina.

Rouzi AA, Sahly N, Alhachim E, Abduljabbar H.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Female genital mutilation (FGM) ranges in severity from a nick of the clitoris to partial or total removal of the external genitalia. Sexual complications after FGM include sexual dysfunction, difficult intercourse, and dyspareunia. AIM: We report a case of Type I FGM presenting as complete vaginal closure and urinary retention.

METHODS: A 16-year-old adolescent was referred for obliterated vagina and urinary retention. She had recurrent urinary tract infections, difficulty in voiding, and cyclic hematuria. At the age of 1 year she had been taken by her mother to a pediatric surgeon to have a Type I FGM procedure. On examination, the urethral meatus and vaginal orifices were completely closed by the FGM scar. She underwent uneventful surgical opening of the vagina.

RESULTS: A normal vaginal orifice was created and normal flow of urine and menses occurred.

CONCLUSION: Type I FGM can present as complete vaginal closure and urinary retention. Proper diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance.

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Prevalence and effects of violence against women in a rural community in Minia governorate, Egypt.

J Forensic Sci. 2011 Nov;56(6):1521-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01886.x. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Prevalence and effects of violence against women in a rural community in Minia governorate, Egypt.

Habib SR, Abdel Azim EK, Fawzy IA, Kamal NN, El Sherbini AM.

Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate prevalence and the characteristics of domestic violence (DV) against women in a rural area in Minia governorate, Egypt, as well as its physical and psychological consequences. Seven hundred and seventy-two women were interviewed. Sociodemographic data were collected; the WHO questionnaire was used to identify the abuse; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IIIR (SCID) to detect psychiatric disorders. Abused females constituted 57.4% of the total sample. There were significant relationships between DV and low education, low income, higher number of children, and husband’s education. Psychiatric disorders occurred in 18% of the sample. There were statistically significant relationships between psychological and physical abuse of women and the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, DV against women was related to various negative health outcomes, and it is recommended to be given its real importance in both Forensic Medicine Council and in psychiatric assessment.

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Immunobiology of Genital Tract Trauma: Endocrine Regulation of HIV Acquisition in Women Following Sexual Assault or Genital Tract Mutilation

American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012

Immunobiology of Genital Tract Trauma: Endocrine Regulation of HIV Acquisition in Women Following Sexual Assault or Genital Tract Mutilation

Ghosh M, Rodriguez-Garcia M, Wira CR

ABSTRACT

Studies on HIV acquisition and transmission in women exposed to sexual trauma throughout their life cycle are lacking, but some findings suggest that rates of HIV acquisition through coercive sex are significantly higher than that seen in consensual sex. Sexual trauma can also occur as a result of female genital mutilation, which makes sex extremely painful and can cause increased abrasions, lacerations, and inflammation, which enhances the risk of HIV acquisition. This review presents an overview of the immune system in the human female reproductive tract (FRT) from adolescence, through puberty to pregnancy and menopause. What is clear is that the foundation of information on immune protection in the FRT throughout the life cycle of women is extremely limited and at some stages such as adolescence and menopause are grossly lacking. Against this backdrop, forced or coercive sexual intercourse as well as genital mutilation further complicates our understanding of the biological risk factors that can result in transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

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