Tag Archives: Young Adult

A person between 19 and 24 years of age.

Female genital mutilation among Edo people: the complications and pattern of presentation at a pediatric surgery unit, Benin City.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2009 Mar;13(1):17-25. FREE

Female genital mutilation among Edo people: the complications and pattern of presentation at a pediatric surgery unit, Benin City.

Osifo DO, Evbuomwan I.

Pediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Leadekso@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years presented with complications following genital mutilation. Twenty-nine were brought by their parents for mutilation while 67 parents interviewed believed strongly on female genital mutilation with 47 mothers mutilated. Religio-cultural and superstitious beliefs were the main indications and the type of mutilation ranged from excision of clitoridal tip in 10 (19.6%) children to complete excision of the clitoris, labia minora and inner layer of majora in 7 (13.7%). Complications ranged from clitoridal cyst formation in 21 (41.2%) to life threatening infections with one mortality due to tetanus infection.

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How experiences and attitudes relating to female circumcision vary according to age on arrival in Britain: a study among young Somalis in London

Ethn Health. 2004 9(1): 75-100. DOI:10.1080/1355785042000202763

How experiences and attitudes relating to female circumcision vary according to age on arrival in Britain: a study among young Somalis in London

Morison LA, Dirir A, Elmi S, Warsame J, Dirir S

ABSTRACT

Objective. To examine the association between age on arrival in Britain and experiences and attitudes relating to female circumcision among young, single Somalis living in London.

Design. The study population consisted of single male and female Somalis aged 16–22 years living in the Greater London area. Quantitative data were collected using a cross‐sectional survey based on snowball sampling aiming to obtain data on 100 males and 100 females. Qualitative data were collected from 10 males and 10 infibulated females.

Results. Quantitative data were obtained for 94 females and 80 males. Living in Britain from a younger age was associated with increased assimilation in terms of language, dress and socialising. Seventy per cent of the females reported being circumcised with two‐thirds of operations being infibulation. Those who were living in Britain before the usual age range for circumcision (before age six) were less likely to be circumcised (42%) than those who arrived after the usual age range for circumcision (11 or older) (91%). During in‐depth interviews, health and sexual problems due to female circumcision were described with great emotion and interviewees acknowledged the association between the importance of virginity for marriage and circumcision. Half of males who arrived aged 11 or older wanted a circumcised wife compared with less than a quarter of those who arrived at a younger age. Eighteen per cent of female respondents and 43% of males intended to circumcise any daughters. Females were less likely than males to agree with the assumptions about sexuality and religion that underpin the practice. Substantial proportions of respondents perceived that their parents’ expectations in terms of marriage and circumcision were more traditional than their own.

Conclusion. Living in Britain from a younger age appears to be associated with abandonment of female circumcision and with changes in the underlying beliefs on sexuality, marriage and religion that underpin it. Groups identified with more traditional views towards female circumcision include males, older generations, new arrivals and those who show few signs of social assimilation.

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Female circumcision: toward an inclusive practice of care.

Health Care Women Int. 2010 Aug;31(8):686-99.

Female circumcision: toward an inclusive practice of care.

Khaja K, Lay K, Boys S.

School of Social Work, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.
kkhaja@iupui.edu

ABSTRACT

Female circumcision is a cultural tradition that includes cutting of female genitals without medical necessity. Over 130 million girls and women have been circumcised globally. This article reports on partial findings from a qualitative study that examined the lives of Somali Muslim women who were circumcised. A reoccurring theme of resentment toward North American health care practitioners who condemn the women for having experienced the practice of circumcision in their birth country was found. Discussion will include the physical and social stigma, the complex legal aspects, and ways to deal with female circumcision in a culturally competent manner.

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Estimating the number of women with female genital mutilation in Belgium.

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011 Aug;16(4):248-57. Epub 2011 May 11.

Estimating the number of women with female genital mutilation in Belgium.

Dubourg D, Richard F, Leye E, Ndame S, Rommens T, Maes S.

Institute of Tropical Medicine , Antwerp, Belgium. ddubourg@itg.be

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of women with female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Belgium, the number of girls at risk, and the target population of medical and social services (MSSs) concerned.

METHODS: Data about prevalence of FGM from the most recently published Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were applied to females living in Belgium who migrated from countries where excision or infibulation are being practised, and to their daughters.

RESULTS: Amongst the 22,840 women and girls living in Belgium who are from a country concerned, 6,260 have ‘most probably already undergone a FGM’ (women born in the country of origin), and 1,975 are ‘at risk’ (second generation born in Belgium). The target population of MSSs comprises 1,190 girls less than five years old attending well-baby clinics, 1,690 girls aged 5-19 years attending preventive school health centres, 4,905 women 20-49 years old and 450 women over 50 years of age attending reproductive health services. The population of women concerned is unequally dispersed in Belgium and reflects the distribution of migrant settlement in the different provinces.

CONCLUSION: FGM in Belgium requires a more concerted approach in terms of prevention, and medical and social care. Accurate information about the distribution of women concerned should permit better planning of competent services.

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Intergenerational attitude changes regarding female genital cutting in Nigeria.

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 Nov;20(11):1655-61. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

Intergenerational attitude changes regarding female genital cutting in Nigeria.

Alo OA, Gbadebo B.

Department of Sociology, Adekunle Ajasin University , Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. bumssy2004@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The practice of female genital cutting (FGC) is widespread in Nigeria and varies from one ethnic group to another. In 1994, Nigeria joined members of the 47th World Health Assembly in a resolution to eliminate the practice, and since then, several steps has been taken to achieve this objective.

METHODS: Nigeria joined members of the 47th World Health Assembly sixteen years ago in a resolution to eliminate female genital mutilation. This study uses data from 420 women aged 15?49 years who had at least one surviving daughter to investigate changes in FGC prevalence among mothers and daughters. The sample was systematically selected through stratified random sampling across the six states of southwest Nigeria. Focus group discussion, and an in-depth interview with fourteen women considered to be specialist in FGC were also held to compliment data generated from the interview.

RESULTS: The analysis indicated an FGC prevalence rate of 75% and 71% for mothers and daughters, respectively. It further indicated that the practice is rooted in tradition despite the fact that 52% of the respondents are aware of the health hazards of FGC. Educated mothers were found to be less likely to favor the cutting of their daughters.

CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that educational campaigns aimed toward parents should be intensified. Legal recourse, prohibition of operations, improvement in women’s status, and sex education are also suggested as means of eradicating the practice.

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Egyptian ever-married women’s attitude toward discontinuation of female genital cutting.

Singapore Med J. 2010 Jan;51(1):15-20.

Egyptian ever-married women’s attitude toward discontinuation of female genital cutting.

Afifi M.

Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health (Headquarters) Dubai, PO Box 1853, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. afifidr@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine Egyptian ever-married women’s beliefs and attitude toward the discontinuation of female genital cutting (FGC). We also examined the significant sources of information which the women with positive attitude were exposed to the year prior to the survey. METHODS: In a national representative community-based sample of 15,573 ever-married Egyptian women, the intention to continue the practice of FGC and other sociodemographical variables were collected from the 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey data. A secondary in-depth analysis was conducted on the data in order to investigate the women’s attitude and its associated factors. RESULTS: Only 12.4 percent of the sample intended to discontinue the practice. The logistic regression models showed that women with a positive attitude to discontinue the practice believed that FGC was not an important part of religious traditions, that husbands did not prefer a cut wife, and that FGC reduced sexual desire. The most significant sources of information related to a positive attitude to discontinue the practice were community discussions, the mosques or churches and the newspapers. CONCLUSION: The aforementioned sources of information are related to the social and religious aspects of women in the Egyptian community. In order to change women’s attitude toward the discontinuation of this unhealthy practice, communication rather than passive learning is needed.

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Post genital mutilation giant clitoral epidermoid inclusion cyst in Benin City, Nigeria.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2010 Dec;23(6):336-40. Epub 2010 Aug 4.

Post genital mutilation giant clitoral epidermoid inclusion cyst in Benin City, Nigeria.

Osifo OD.

Pediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Leadekso@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVE: To report overall occurrence, and the mode of presentation and management of girls with post genital mutilation giant clitoral epidermoid inclusion cyst in an African subregion.
METHODS: This is a prospective experience with female patients who presented at two centers in Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2005 and December 2009 with clitoral epidermoid inclusion cyst following underground traditional female genital mutilation performed on neonates.
RESULTS: In total, 37 patients were seen with clitoral epidermoid inclusion cyst, 15 (40.5%) were post pubertal girls who could no longer cope with giant cyst that measured more than 3.5 × 6.5 cm in size at an average age of 17 (range 14-21) years. Ignorance, financial constraints, and the fear of possible prosecution by anti-female genital mutilation agencies were reasons for late presentation. Consequently, rapid increase in size of all cysts (100%), mass effect producing dragging discomfort in the vulva of 14 (93.3%) girls, social stigmatization of 12 (80%) girls by peers and spouses, sexual difficulty experienced by 10 (66.7%), and irritating bulge in the perineum of 10 (66.7%) girls, were the most common indications for surgical consultation. Outcomes of cystectomy that included total clitoridectomy performed on on an outpatient basis mainly with local anesthesia were encouraging with no incidence of recurrence recorded on 1-4 years postoperative follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Late presentation of girls with giant post genital mutilation clitoral epidermoid inclusion cysts was common. More campaigns against female genital mutilation and government policy aimed at encouraging patients with
complications to seek early medical attention, and free treatment for those who present early are advocated.

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